o aim to discover a few causal factors that are most important
o Imagine 2 or 3 key factors that determine which colleges students chose?
o Aim to explain things through all relevant causal factors.
o imagine all the reasons you chose this college
Two Models of Explanation (cause & effect)
Demonstrates the % of differences ?
A probabilistic relationship
How to determine a causal relationship?
By time sequence (e.g. X before Y)
and In terms of cause and effect.
By Time sequence (e.g., X before Y)
In terms of cause and effect
A variable assumed to depend on or be caused by another
A variable with values that are not problematical in an analysis but are taken as simply given.
An empirical relationship between two variables such that changes in one are associated with changes in the other or particular attributes of one variable are associated with particular attributes of the other.
What are the relationship between variables?
Correlation and Casual relationship
SDSU classification: freshmen, sophomore, junior, senior, graduate.
Freshmen is an example of?
Are the categories of a variable
Examples of age, gender, are?
Is a label for a concept?
What do social scientists study?
Social scientists study primarily social patterns rather than individual ones. Aggregates are collective actions and situations of many individuals.
You’ll tend to focus on future events and situations that fit the pattern and you’ll ignore those that don’t.
If only people who have reached a certain age can vote in elections. In the U.S.
military, until recently only men could participate in combat. Such formal prescriptions is?
Attempts to discuss and explain what is, not what should be. It should
not be confused with philosophy or belief. Logical aspect of life.
What is science vs personal inquiry?
– Science is a conscious action, with distinctive purpose
– Large & representative samples
- Replications: Repeating an experiment to expose or reduce error.
– Role of scientific community
What are the two realities?
Experiential and Agreement Reality
We simply accept the great majority of them, the things that "everyone knows" undestanding of something we all know to be true.
A trust the judgment of the person who has special training, expertise, and credentials in a given matter is?
What are the errors in personal inquiry?
a. Inaccurate observation
c. Selective Observation
d. Premature closure of inquiry
e. Ego involvement
Simply making observation more deliberate can reduce error. If you had to guess what your instructor was wearing the first day of class, you’d probably make a mistake.
We often assume that a few similar events are evidence of a general pattern. Scientists guard against overgeneralization by seeking a sufficiently large sample of observations.