Section 12: Higher Cortical Areas

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Section 12: Higher Cortical Areas
2011-04-09 22:20:01

What is it and where is it?
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  1. Even though connections are everywhere, the output from V1 goes largely to what two major lobes?
    Posterior parietal lobe (which interacts with the frontal lobe-motor cortex) and the inferior temporal lobe (which interacts with the pre-frontal lobe).
  2. What happens when you stimulate V1 with intact PPL vs stimulating V1 with a lesioned PPL?
    V1 with lesion: monkey glances at flashes of light but knows that it is not real.

    V1 without lesion: monkey acts as if flashes were real and reaches out to grab the light.
  3. What is an epileptic focus?
    Basically this refers to the origin of an epileptic seizure. Patients experience seizures originating in PPL and this is their epileptic focus.
  4. What does a patient with an epileptic focus of the PPL experience? What type of aura?
    Butterflies in the brain: colored banners, and patient loses cues of depth ( VF becomes flat).
  5. Describe the receptive fields of the PPL?
    Large and egocentric (not retinoscopic): This allows the patient to interpret where something is located to the OBSERVER. It is large, but is not a great orientation detector.
  6. What happens when you lesion the right posterior parietal lobe?
    Patient will see flickering lights when the PPL area is artificially stimulated. They will see flashes of black and dark spots. This is referred to electrical stimulation and can be done on epilepsy patients before they undergo surgery. (to remove the epileptic focus). This helps because when the patient experiences the sensations, the doctors knew that the epileptic focus was being stimulated and this helped them remove the focus.
  7. What functional things can an individual with a lesion to the PPL not do?
    They cannot read a road map like they used to before. They can follow things, but don't really understand. They get LOST often. SEVERE MAP deficiencies.
  8. What does the clock test portray in a person with PPL lesion?
    A patient is shown a pocket watch and an ashtray. When shown individually, they can identify objects without trouble; when the watch is placed on the ashtray, the patient only sees the clock because the two objects are combined into one.
  9. What happens when there is a lesion to the hippocampus?
    Humans lose their ability to learn locations in a virtual maze where they must learn how to get from one place to another.
  10. What is the hippocampus responsible for?
    Memory and space.
  11. The hippocamus is the bottleneck....
    for memory information going in and out of the temporal lobe.
  12. Although hippocampus has a huge part in memory, this lobe also contributes.
    Parietal lobe-memories are in part due to info from the parietal lobe.
  13. What is F1? F5? Broca's Area? AIP? LIP?
    • F1: primary motor cortex
    • F5: motor preparation and organization areas located in front of F1. (motor mirror cells).
    • Broca's are: speaking and writing is located below F5
    • AIP: Anterior Intraparietal Area
    • LIP: Lateral Intraparietal Area
  14. Which cells are firing even before reaching occurs?
    AIP cells trigger the reach.
  15. What are AIP also known as?
    They are also known as mirror cells because these cells are ALSO firing when animals SEE someone else reach. These are the pre-motor mirror cells.
  16. LIP sends its input to where? and has what type of VF?
    to the AIP, and has an egocentric VF.
  17. Describe how a movement occurs from F1 to the hands, etc.
    F5 (pre-motor cortex) goes to F1 (motor cortex); motor cortex carries info to arm, hand and triggers the movements that occur.
  18. Where are mirror cells essentially?
    There are mirror cells in different parts of the brain for a variety of behaviors and feelings.
  19. What happens when you watch a person move?
    Mirror cells in AIP (pre-motor mirror cells) and F5 (motor mirror cells) respond and may start to respond to the next move before it happens. By repeatedly imagining movements-the pianist, cook, or athlete trains neural circuits to perform better.
  20. When do mirror cells start working?
    At birth! infants learn to stick out their tongue by imitating adults, even though their vision is poor. Cells in Brocas/Wernicke's start to respond to human speech during the first few weeks of life.
  21. What part of the brain is activated by watching emotional behavior?
    Neurons in the insula and other parts of the lymbic system- empathy for others.
  22. Mirror cells activated best when
    watching REAL people and not movies/Tv.