oral pathology quiz 1

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Grctiff
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oral pathology quiz 1
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2011-04-09 18:50:41
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oral pathology
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  1. marked decrease in the number of granulocytes, particularly neutrophils
    arganulocytosis
  2. lack of development
    aplasia
  3. small flat hemorrhagic patch on the skin or mucous membrane--bruise
    ecchymosis
  4. the volume percentage of RBCs in whole blood
    hematocrit
  5. chemical substance produced in the body that has a specific regulatory effect on certain cells or organs
    hormone
  6. excess of glucose in the blood
    hyperglycemia
  7. deficiency of phosphates in the blood
    hypophosphatemia
  8. accumulation of acid in the body resulting from the accumulation of ketone bodies
    ketoacidosis
  9. decreased number of neutrophils in the blood
    neutropenia
  10. parathyroid hormone
    parathormone
  11. disc shaped structure found in blood; for blood coagulation
    platelet
  12. blood disorder characterized by purplish or brownish red discolorations caused by bleeding into the skin or tissues
    purpura
  13. platelet
    thrombocyte
  14. reductions of the number of RBCs quantity of hemoglobin, or volume of packed RBCs
    anemia
  15. formation of a clot
    coagulation
  16. insoluble protein that is essential to the clotting of blood
    fibrin
  17. release of hemoglobin from RBCs by destruction of the cells
    hemolysis
  18. enlargement of the liver
    hepatomegaly
  19. excess of calcium in the blood
    hypercalcemia
  20. hormone produced in the pancreas that regulates glucose metabolism and is a major fuel regulating hormone
    insulin
  21. RBC that is smaller than normal
    microcyte
  22. abnormal rarefaction of bone
    osteoporosis
  23. minute red spot on the skin or mucosa caused by the escape of a small amount of blood
    petechia
  24. increase in the total RBC mass in the blood
    polycythemia
  25. enlargement of the spleen
    splenomegaly
  26. decrease in the number of platelets in circulating blood
    thrombocytopenia
  27. stoppage or cessation of bleeding
    hemostasis
  28. muscle pain
    myalgia
  29. -excess hormone production by the anterior pituitary gland.
    -caused most by a benign tumor that produces growth hormone (pituitary adenoma)
    -gigantism
    -acromegaly
    -macroglossia
    hyperpituitarism
  30. an increase in growth hormone production
    gigantism
  31. hypersecretion of growth hormone
    acromegaly
  32. patients have a thickened tongue
    macroglossia
  33. -aka:"thyrotoxicosis"
    -excessive production of thyroid hormone
    -more common in women
    -causes: hyperplasia of the gland, benign and malignant tumors of the thyroid, pituitary gland disease, metastic tumors
    -clinically: rosy complexion, erythema of the palms, excessive sweating, fine hair, exopthalmus
    -oral: premature exfoliation in children, osteoporosis and affects alveolar bone, decay and perio disease, burning tongue
    hyperthroidism
  34. protrustion of the eyeballs
    exopthalmus
  35. -decreased output of thyroid hormone
    -cretinism
    -myxedema
    -synthroid used for underscretion
    hypothyroidism
  36. hypothyroidism present during infancy and childhood
    cretinism
  37. hypothyroidism present in older children and adults
    myxedema
  38. -excessive secretion of parathyroid hormone (PTH)
    -PTH plays an important role in calcium and phosphorus metabolism
    -characterized by: elevated blood levels of calcium, low levels of blood phosphorus, abnormal bone metablism
    -most common cause: parathroid adeonma
    hyperparathyroidism
  39. elevated blood levels of calcium
    hypercalcenmia
  40. low levels of blood phosphorus
    hypophosphatemia
  41. benign tumor of parathyroid gland
    parathyroid adenoma
  42. -involoves the beta cells of the pancreas
    -chronic disorder of glucose metabloism that is characterized by abnormally high blood glucose levels
    -production of ketone acid from the breakdown of fatty tissues is life threatening
    -this causes the blood ph to be lowered
    diabetes mellitus
  43. chronic disorder of glucose metabloism that is characterized by abnormally high blood glucose levels
    hyperglycema
  44. types of diabetes
    insulin dependent (IDDM) type 1, noninsulin-dependent (NIDDM) type 2
  45. -autoimmunity leads to the destruction of insulin producing beta cells leading to insulin deficiency
    - 5-10& of all diabetes patients
    -onset is usually at 20 years
    -3 ps: polydipsia,polyuria,polyghagia
    -major problem for patients with IDDM is controlling blood glucose levels
    -glucose controlled by multiple injections of insulin
    insulin dependent IDDM type 1
  46. excessive thirst and fluid intake
    polydipsia
  47. excessive urination
    polyuria
  48. excessive appetite
    polyphagia
  49. -increased insulin resistance
    -90% of all diabetes patients are this type
    -onset usually in their 40s
    -obseity is common
    -complications are less common
    -control blood glucose with diet and weight reduction
    -oral medications to lower blood glucose levels
    -25-30% of patients with type 2 require insulin injections
    noninsulin dependent NIDDM type2
  50. -vascular system is the most severely affected
    -increased risk for antherosclerosis
    -decreased resistance of infection is seen
    -poor wound healing
    Clinical manifestation of diabetes
  51. -candidasis
    -xerostomia
    -accentuated response to plaque
    -ginigiva can be hyperplastic and erythematous
    -periodontal disease,mobility,early tooth loss
    -slow wound healing-increased susceptibility to infection
    -ABC medication, calculus and plaque removal, and effective oral hygiene care as especially important in the management of diavetic patients
    oral complications
  52. -aka primary adrenal cortical insufficiency
    -characterized by an insufficient production of adrenal steroids
    -a malignant tumor or TB may be responsible for destruction of the adrenal gland
    addisons disease
  53. disease characterized by the replacement of bone with abnormal fibrous CT containing calcifications
    fibrous dysplasia
  54. -most common form characterized by involvement of only bone
    -maxilla affected more than mandible
    -ribs,femur, and tibia affected
    -common in young children n young adults
    monostatic fibrous dysplasia
  55. -involvement of more than one bone
    -more common in children-females
    -bones of face, skull, clavicles, and long bones
    -skin lesions
    -most severe form is albrights syndrome
    polyostatic fibrous dysplasia
  56. skin lesions
    cafe au labit spots
  57. menses,pubic hair,and breast development by two years of age
    precocious puberty
  58. -aka osteitis deformans
    -chronic metabolic disease characterized by resorption, osteoblastic, repair, remineralization, of the involved bone
    -older men 50s
    -maxilla more commonly affected
    -enlargement of bone
    pagets disease
  59. -disease of bone caused by deficiency of calcium over a long period
    -in young children-caused by nutritional deficiency of vitamin d-rickets
    osteomalacia

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