Medical Terminology Ch 10

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Medical Terminology Ch 10
2011-04-09 21:56:36
medical terminology

Medical Terminology Ch. 10 - Cardiovascular, Immune, Lymphatic Systems and Blood
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  1. Cardiovascular system function
    • pumps and transports blood throughout the body.
    • consists of the heart and a closed network of blood vessels conposed of arteries, capillaries and veins
  2. heart
    • muscular cone-shaped organ the size of a fist.
    • located behind the sternum and between the lungs
    • consists of two upper chambers (atria) and two lower chambers (ventricles)
  3. atrium
    • one of two upper chambers in the heart - right and left
    • receive blood returning from the body through the veins.
  4. ventricle
    • one of two lower chambers in the heart - right and left
    • pump blood through the arteries from the heart back to the body tissue
  5. atrial septum
    separates atria
  6. ventricular septum
    separates the ventricles
  7. tricuspid valve
    • one of the atrioventricular valves
    • located between the right atrium and right ventricle
  8. mitral valve
    • one the atrioventricular valves
    • located between the left atrium and the left ventricle
  9. semilunar valves
    pulmonary and aortic valves located between the the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery and between the left ventricle and the aorta
  10. pericardium
    two-layer sac consisting of an external fibrous layer and an internal serous layer
  11. epicardium
    • serous inner layer of the pericardium
    • secretes a fluid that facilitates movement of the heart
  12. epicardium
    covers the heart
  13. myocardium
    middle, thick, muscular layer
  14. endocardium
    inner lining of the heart
  15. blood vessels
    tubelike structures that carry blood throughout the body
  16. arteries
    • carry blood away from the heart
    • carry oxygen and other nutrients from the heart to the body cells (with the exception of the pulmonary artery)
  17. pulmonary artery
    carries carbon dioxide and other waste products from the heart to the lungs
  18. arterioles
    smallest arteries
  19. aorta
    • largest artery in the body
    • originating at the left ventricle and descending through the thorax and abdomen
  20. veins
    • carry blood back to the heart
    • carry blood containing carbon dioxide and other waste products (with the exception of the pulmonary veins)
  21. pulmonary veins
    carry oxygenated blood from the lungs to the heart
  22. venules
    smallest veins
  23. venae cavae
    largest veins in the body
  24. inferior vena cava
    carriesblood to the heart from body parts below the diaphragm
  25. superior vena cava
    carries blood to the heart from the upper part of the body
  26. capillaries
    • connect arterioles with venules
    • conduct exchange of waste and nutrients through capillary walls
  27. blood
    composed of plasma and formed elements
  28. plasma
    • clear, straw-colored, liquid portion of blood in which cells are suspended.
    • approx. 90% water
    • comprises approx. 55% total blood volume
  29. erythrocytes
    • red blood cells that carry oxygen
    • develop in bone marrow
  30. leukocytes
    white blood cells that combat infection and respond to inflammation
  31. platelets (thrombocytes)
    • aid in clotting
    • one of the formed elements in blood
  32. serum
    clear, watery fluid portion of the blood that remains after a clot has formed
  33. lymph
    • transparent, colorless, tissue fluid
    • contains lymphocytes and monocytes
    • flows in a one-way direction to the heart
    • similar to blood plasma
  34. lymphatic vessels
    • similar to veins
    • transport lymph from body tissues to chest to enter cardiovascular system
  35. lymph nodes
    • small, spherical bodies composed of lymphoid tissue
    • filter lymph to keep substances (bacteria, etc) from entering blood
    • produce lymphocytes
  36. spleen
    • located in left side of abdominal cavity between stomach and diaphragm
    • largest lymphatic organ in adult body
    • blood (not lymph) is cleansed of microorganisms in spleen
    • stores red blood cells and destroys worn out red blood cells
  37. thymus gland
    • located anterior to the ascending aorta and posterior to the sternum between the lungs
    • develops body's immune system from infancy to puberty
    • atrophies around puberty so that most of gland becomes connective tissues
  38. angi/o
    • vessel
    • usually used to refer to blood vessel
  39. aort/o
  40. arteri/o
  41. cardi/o
  42. lymphaden/o
    lymph node
  43. lymph/o
    lymph, lymph tissue
  44. myel/o
    bone marrow
  45. phleb/o
  46. ven/o
  47. plasm/o
  48. splen/o
  49. thym/o
    thymus gland
  50. valv/o
  51. valvul/o
  52. ventricul/o
  53. ather/o
    yellowish, fatty plaque
  54. ech/o
  55. electr/o
    electricity, electrical activity
  56. isch/o
    deficiency, blockage
  57. therm/o
  58. thromb/o
  59. brady-
  60. -ac
    pertaining to
  61. -apheresis
  62. -graph
    instrument used to record; record
  63. -odynia
  64. -poiesis
  65. -sclerosis
  66. aneurysm
    balloning of a weakend portion of an arterial wall
  67. myocardial infarction
    heart attack
  68. anemia
    reduction in the amount of hemoglobin in the red blood cells. Can be caused by blood loss or decrease in production or increase in destruction of red blood cells
  69. hemophilia
    inherited bleeding disease most commonly caused by a deficiency of the coagulation factor VIII
  70. leukemia
    malignant disease characterized by excessive increase in abnormal white blood cells formed in bone marrow
  71. cardiac pacemaker
    battery-powered apparatus implanted under the skin with leads placed on the heart or in the chamber of the heart
  72. coronary artery bypass graft (CABG)
    surgical technique to bring a new blood supply to heart muscle by detouring around blocked arteries
  73. femoropopliteal bypass
    • probably a spelling word
    • surgery to establish an alternate route from femoral artery to popliteal artery to bypass an obstruction
  74. intracoronary thrombolytic therapy
    injection of an intrevenous medication to dissolve clood clots in coronary vessles
  75. Doppler ultrasound
    • study that uses sound for detection of blood flow within vessels
    • used to assess intermittent claudication, deep vein thrombosis and other blood flow abnormalities
  76. exercise stress test
    study that evaluates cardiac function during physical stress by riding a bike or walking on a treadmill.
  77. cardiac catheterization
    • examination to determine the condition of the heart and surrounding blood vessels
    • also called coronary angiography
  78. auscultation
    hearing sounds within the body through a stethoscope
  79. blood pressure
    • (BP)
    • pressure exerted by the blood against the blood vessel walls
    • written as: systolic / diastolic
  80. sphygmomanometer
    • probably a spelling word
    • device used for measuring blood pressure
  81. coagulation time
    blood test to determine the time it takes for blood to form a clot
  82. prothrombin time
    • (PT)
    • blood test used to determine certain coagulation activity defects and to monitor anticoagulation theraphy for patients taking Coumadin
  83. HDL
    High density lipoprotein
    good cholestorol
  84. LDL
    Low density lipoprotein
    bad cholestorol
  85. cardiopulmonary resuscitation
    • CPR
    • emergency procedure consisting of artifical ventilation and external cardiac massage
  86. diastole
    • lower # on BP
    • phase in the cardiac cycle in which the ventricles relax between contractions
  87. hypertension
    • high blood pressure
    • above 140/90
  88. hypotension
    • low blood pressure
    • below 90/60
  89. lumen
    space within a tubular part or organ, such as the space within a blood vessel
  90. systole
    • upper # on BP
    • phase in the cardiac cycle in which the ventricles contract
  91. anticoagulant
    agent that slows the clotting process
  92. phagocytosis
    process in which some of the white blood cells destroy the invading microorganism and old cells
  93. vaccine
    suspension on inactivated microorganisms administered by injection, mouth or by nasal spray to prevent infectious diseases by inducing immunity