Ch 6. Body Composition
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What are the component tissues of the body; refer to the relative % of fat and fat free tissue?
What is the mass of fat tissue of the body?
What is the mass of the Fat Free tissues of the body?
Fat Free Mass .... aka Lean Body Mass
What is the percentage of Total body mass?
Percent Body Fat
Formula for % Body Fat
%BF= (Fat mass / Body mass) x 100
Condition of excess adipose tissue (fat tissue) classified - %BF of BMI
Above the recommended weight range but NOT yet obese.
Definition of Obesity in Females and Males?
%BF Females >38% and Males >25%
BMI OBESE and OVERWEIGHT values ?
BMI OBESE >30 kg˙m-2
BMI OVERWEIGHT 25-29.9kg˙m-2
Nearly ___ of American adults are classified as either overweight or obese. (fraction)
What are health risks linked to obesity?
- type 2 diabetes
- coronary artery disease
- degenerative joint disease
- abnormal lipid profile
Fat patterning (genetic) is fat storage or excess weight and is also called ?
Body Fat Distribution
Android type obesity?
- Apple shape or Male pattern. fat storage in Abdominal area
- Most DANGEROUS in terms of negative health consequences
- closely linked with obesity
Gynoid type obesity?
- Pear shape or Female pattern
- fat storage in Hips and Thighs
Waist to hip ratio is a useful tool in differentiating between ?
Gynoid and Android Obesity
What is Essential Fat?
- Fat needed for....
- Energy production
- Temperature regulation
- Cushioning joints
- Internal organs
How much essential fat is thought to be healthy for male and females ?
Too little fat Negative Consequences?
- impaired temperature regulation
- early death
Method for Assesing Body Composition
Is there a method that can truly measure body composition?
NO, to measure the volume of fat in body would need to disect and chemically analyze the tissues in the body.
T/F %BF is estimated
Hydrostatice weighing is often refered to as ?
What does Criterion method mean?
Provides a standard by which other methods are comared.
What and what are used to calculated BF% for hydrostatic weighing?
Body mass Submerged and Body mass on Land
Body Mass submerged and Body Mass on Land are used to calculate TOTAL BODY DENSITY using what equation?
Density= mass / volume
According the Archimedes principle a person with more lean mass will weigh___ underwater than a person with less lean mass.
Advantages of Hydrostatic weighing?
- Accurately estimated body composition for most adults
- technique remains the standard for body composition
Disadvantaged for Hydrostatic weighing?
- Technical expertise
- Individual discomfort w/water submerging
Air Displacement Plethysmography
Body volume is calculated in what?
What chanages the volume of the chamber?
Computer Controlled diaphragm
Pressure changes are related to?
the size of the person
What is the standard error for Air Displacement Plethysmography?
Advantages of Air Displacement Plethysmography?
- less energy producing
Disadvantages for Air diplacement Plethysmography?
- Cost of equipment
- Subject must dress according to manufacturers specifications
What is bioelectrical Analysis?
- Electric current travels earily through tissue containing water and electrolytes.
- Fat does not contain much water so it impedes electrical flow.
- Fat can be estimated by the impedence encountered when electrical currents pass through the body.
Values of BIA are within ___ % of those obtained with hydrostatic weighing.
It is important to choose the _____ for estimating %BF. And it is critical that the person being tested is ____.
- proper equation
- normally hydrated
Advantages for the BIA
Disadvantages of the BIA
- Inaccurate results for people with amputations
- Significant muscle atrophy
- severe obesity
- diseases that alter hydration
- People with defibrilators should avoid BIA
Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DEXA)
What is this ?
Total body x-ray with extremely low dosage energy beam.
The x rays that passes through the subject will measure what?
measure the density of all parts of the body.
This was originally developed for ?
Bone density studies
Advantages of DEXA?
- Relatively quick
- High potential for accuracy regardless of individual tested
Disadvantages of DEXA?
- Access to equipment
- DEXA found in hospital or clinical setings(due to xray)
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Compted Tomography (CT)
What are these?
Imaging techniques to determine fat distribution patterns. Particularly important for visceral fat which is associated with disease.
CT scans use ____ to produce ____
- images of fat and nonfat tissues
MRI use ____ to produce ____.
- Strong magnetic field
- images of fat and nonfat tissues
CT AND MRI are both ___.
Skinfold Measurements are the ____ method for estimating %BF.
most frequently used
The thickness of the skinfold can be used to estimate %BF because there is a correlation between ____and ____.
subcutaneous fat and total body fatness
Accuracy is ____ of hydrostatic weighing.
To make skinfod accurate
- Accurately locate te skinfold site
- Accurately measure the skinfold
- and Choose the appropriate equation for converting skinfold thickness into %BF.
Girth Measurements are used to ____or ___.
estimate body composition or describe body proportions
more about Girth Measurements
- They provide quick and reliable imformation about the individual
- May be used to track canges during weight loss
Disadvantages of Girth Measurements
- provide little information about the fat and fat free components of the body
- For example a body builders thighs may have a larger circumference yet less fat that an obese person.
Waist to Hip Ratio is most frequently used
clinical application of girth measurements . Value is often used to reflect the degree of ABDOMINAL or ANDROID type fat.
A WTH ratio of what is considered too high according to ACSM standards
Men and women
- >.95 for men
- >.86 for women
A waist circumference of what is high risk of obesity related disease.
Men and women
- greater than 102 cm (40 in) for men
- greater than 88cm (35 in) for women
Body Mass Index is a criterion used to classify?
Adequacy of weight for height
BMI does NOT indicate level of Body Fatness.
BMI is claculated by?
Weight in kg / Squared height in m.
values of BMI for :
- underweight <18.5 kg˙m2
- normal weight 18.5-24.9 kg˙m2
- overweight 25-29.9 kg˙m2
- obese >30 kg˙m2
It is often important to help clients determine a healthy and reasonable weigh. Calculating TARGET BODY WEIGHT requires knowledge of __,____, and ___.
- current body weight
- desired %BF
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