Ch 6. Body Composition

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Ch 6. Body Composition
2011-04-18 21:20:14
Body Composition

Component tissues of the body
Show Answers:

  1. What are the component tissues of the body; refer to the relative % of fat and fat free tissue?
    Body Composition
  2. What is the mass of fat tissue of the body?
    Fat Mass
  3. What is the mass of the Fat Free tissues of the body?
    Fat Free Mass .... aka Lean Body Mass
  4. What is the percentage of Total body mass?
    Percent Body Fat
  5. Formula for % Body Fat
    %BF= (Fat mass / Body mass) x 100
  6. Define Obesity
    Condition of excess adipose tissue (fat tissue) classified - %BF of BMI
  7. Define OVERWEIGHT
    Above the recommended weight range but NOT yet obese.
  8. Definition of Obesity in Females and Males?
    %BF Females >38% and Males >25%
  9. BMI OBESE and OVERWEIGHT values ?
    BMI OBESE >30 kg˙m-2

    BMI OVERWEIGHT 25-29.9kg˙m-2
  10. Nearly ___ of American adults are classified as either overweight or obese. (fraction)
  11. What are health risks linked to obesity?
    • type 2 diabetes
    • coronary artery disease
    • hypertension
    • degenerative joint disease
    • abnormal lipid profile
    • hormones
  12. Fat patterning (genetic) is fat storage or excess weight and is also called ?
    Body Fat Distribution
  13. Android type obesity?
    • Apple shape or Male pattern. fat storage in Abdominal area
    • Most DANGEROUS in terms of negative health consequences
    • closely linked with obesity
  14. Gynoid type obesity?
    • Pear shape or Female pattern
    • fat storage in Hips and Thighs
  15. Waist to hip ratio is a useful tool in differentiating between ?
    Gynoid and Android Obesity
  16. What is Essential Fat?
    • Fat needed for....
    • Energy production
    • Temperature regulation
    • Cushioning joints
    • Internal organs
  17. How much essential fat is thought to be healthy for male and females ?
    • Men 3-5%
    • Women 8-12%
  18. Too little fat Negative Consequences?
    • infertility
    • depression
    • impaired temperature regulation
    • early death
  19. Method for Assesing Body Composition
  20. Is there a method that can truly measure body composition?
    NO, to measure the volume of fat in body would need to disect and chemically analyze the tissues in the body.
  21. T/F %BF is estimated
  22. Hydrostatice weighing is often refered to as ?
    Criterion method
  23. What does Criterion method mean?
    Provides a standard by which other methods are comared.
  24. What and what are used to calculated BF% for hydrostatic weighing?
    Body mass Submerged and Body mass on Land
  25. Body Mass submerged and Body Mass on Land are used to calculate TOTAL BODY DENSITY using what equation?
    Density= mass / volume
  26. According the Archimedes principle a person with more lean mass will weigh___ underwater than a person with less lean mass.
  27. Advantages of Hydrostatic weighing?
    • Accurately estimated body composition for most adults
    • technique remains the standard for body composition
  28. Disadvantaged for Hydrostatic weighing?
    • Time
    • Expense
    • Technical expertise
    • Individual discomfort w/water submerging
  29. Air Displacement Plethysmography
    Body volume is calculated in what?
    Sealed Chamber
  30. What chanages the volume of the chamber?
    Computer Controlled diaphragm
  31. Pressure changes are related to?
    the size of the person
  32. What is the standard error for Air Displacement Plethysmography?
  33. Advantages of Air Displacement Plethysmography?
    • Quicker
    • less energy producing
  34. Disadvantages for Air diplacement Plethysmography?
    • Cost of equipment
    • Subject must dress according to manufacturers specifications
  35. What is bioelectrical Analysis?
    • Electric current travels earily through tissue containing water and electrolytes.
    • Fat does not contain much water so it impedes electrical flow.
    • Fat can be estimated by the impedence encountered when electrical currents pass through the body.
  36. Values of BIA are within ___ % of those obtained with hydrostatic weighing.
  37. It is important to choose the _____ for estimating %BF. And it is critical that the person being tested is ____.
    • proper equation
    • normally hydrated
  38. Advantages for the BIA
    • Easy
    • Inexpensive
    • Noninvasive
  39. Disadvantages of the BIA
    • Inaccurate results for people with amputations
    • Significant muscle atrophy
    • severe obesity
    • diseases that alter hydration
    • People with defibrilators should avoid BIA
  40. Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DEXA)
    What is this ?
    Total body x-ray with extremely low dosage energy beam.
  41. The x rays that passes through the subject will measure what?
    measure the density of all parts of the body.
  42. This was originally developed for ?
    Bone density studies
  43. Advantages of DEXA?
    • Relatively quick
    • High potential for accuracy regardless of individual tested
  44. Disadvantages of DEXA?
    • Cost
    • Access to equipment
    • DEXA found in hospital or clinical setings(due to xray)
  45. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Compted Tomography (CT)
    What are these?
    Imaging techniques to determine fat distribution patterns. Particularly important for visceral fat which is associated with disease.
  46. CT scans use ____ to produce ____
    • x-rays
    • images of fat and nonfat tissues
  47. MRI use ____ to produce ____.
    • Strong magnetic field
    • images of fat and nonfat tissues
  48. CT AND MRI are both ___.
  49. Skinfold Measurements are the ____ method for estimating %BF.
    most frequently used
  50. The thickness of the skinfold can be used to estimate %BF because there is a correlation between ____and ____.
    subcutaneous fat and total body fatness
  51. Accuracy is ____ of hydrostatic weighing.
  52. To make skinfod accurate
    • Accurately locate te skinfold site
    • Accurately measure the skinfold
    • and Choose the appropriate equation for converting skinfold thickness into %BF.
  53. Girth Measurements are used to ____or ___.
    estimate body composition or describe body proportions
  54. more about Girth Measurements
    • They provide quick and reliable imformation about the individual
    • May be used to track canges during weight loss
  55. Disadvantages of Girth Measurements
    • provide little information about the fat and fat free components of the body
    • For example a body builders thighs may have a larger circumference yet less fat that an obese person.
  56. Waist to Hip Ratio is most frequently used
    clinical application of girth measurements . Value is often used to reflect the degree of ABDOMINAL or ANDROID type fat.
  57. A WTH ratio of what is considered too high according to ACSM standards
    Men and women
    • >.95 for men
    • >.86 for women
  58. A waist circumference of what is high risk of obesity related disease.
    Men and women
    • greater than 102 cm (40 in) for men
    • greater than 88cm (35 in) for women
  59. Body Mass Index is a criterion used to classify?
    Adequacy of weight for height
  60. BMI does NOT indicate level of Body Fatness.
  61. BMI is claculated by?
    Weight in kg / Squared height in m.
  62. values of BMI for :
    normal weight
    • underweight <18.5 kg˙m2
    • normal weight 18.5-24.9 kg˙m2
    • overweight 25-29.9 kg˙m2
    • obese >30 kg˙m2
  63. It is often important to help clients determine a healthy and reasonable weigh. Calculating TARGET BODY WEIGHT requires knowledge of __,____, and ___.
    • current body weight
    • %BF
    • desired %BF