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Formal Powers of Presidency
- Enforce Laws
- Handle foreign policy
- Can force Congress into session
- Brief Congress on "state of the union"
- Veto legislation
- Grant repreives and pardons
- Appoint cabinet, justices, ambassadors, all with approval of Senate
- Negotiate treaties, with 2/3 ratification from Senate
Commander in Chief
- Only Congress can declare war, but only president can carry out war.
- President is at mercy of Congress for the money to wage war, but Congress would look bad if it refused.
Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
- Gave LBJ broad powers to commit unlimited numbers of troops for an unlimited length of time in Vietnam.
- Given by Congress in a state of panic.
War Powers Act
Limits the president to 10,000 troops for 60 days, with 30 additional days to withdraw the troops, unless Congress grants an extension or declares war.
Informal Powers of President
- Persuade policy.
- Communicate with Congress and the American people.
- Lead legislation and agendas.
- Build coalitions.
Chief of Staff
- Top aide to the president.
- Responsible for managing the Executive Office and can control access to the president.
The National Security Council
- Headed by the National Security Advisor, who has direct access to the president regarding foreign policy/military.
- Largely free from congressional oversight.
The Office of Management and Budget
- Responsible for preparing the budget of the United States.
- Can be used to control and manage the executive agencies for the president.
- Enormous power derived from the ability to allocate money to the cabinet departments.
Domestic Policy Council
Assists the president in formulating policies relating to energy, education, agriculture, natural resources, economic affairs, health and human resources, welfare reform, drug abuse, and crime.
The Council of Economic Advisors
- Responsible for helping the president make national economic policy.
- Usually made up of economists and advises the president on policies that are designed to increase prosperity.
The U.S. Trade Representative
Responsible for negotiating complex trade and tariff agreements for the president.
- Not mentioned in Constitution but created through custom and usage.
- Each department instituted by an act of Congress.
- Secretary appointed by the president, but also may be dismissed.
- Secretaries always expected to support the president.
- Secretaries are buffers of criticism.
- Over time, secretaries represent the interests of their department more than the policies of the president.
- House votes simple majority on grounds of "treason, bribery, or other high crimes and misdemeanors"
- Senate removal on 2/3 vote.
- Very political; divides party lines.
Federal judge impeached for bribery and perjury, but now a member of the same House of Reps that voted for his impeachment.