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- good fats
- liquid at room temp
- found in plant and fish oils
- *prevents saturated fats from being turned into cholesterol
- bad fats
- solid at room temp
- found in animal food
- palm and coconut oil
- broken down in liver to cholesterol
- Take unsaturated fat and fill bonds with hydrogen to make it saturated
- partially hydrogenated oil
Absorption process of Chemical Digestion: Carbohydrates:
- enter capillary bed in villi
- transported to liver via hepatic portal vein
Enzymes used in Chemical Digestion of Carbohydrates:
- salivary amylase
- pancreatic amylase
- brush border enzymes
How do fatty acids and monoglycerides enter intestinal walls?
Fatty acids are combined with ______ within the cells and what is the result?
- Chylomicrons are the result (lipoprotein droplets)
Where do chylomicrons enter?
lacteals and then transport to ciruclation by lymph system
Difference between Lipid (fat) absorption and amino acids and simple sugars:
- Lipids are changed through epithelial cells
- amino acids and simple sugars go through unchanged
How are Nucelic Acids chemically digested?
- active transport via membrane carriers
- absorbed in villi and transported to liver via hepatic portal vein
What are the Enzymes used in Chemical Digestion of Nucelic Acids?
- pancreatic ribonucleases
- *in small intestines
How are electrolytes absorbed?
- ions are actively absorbed along length of small intestine
- Sodium is coupled with glucose and amino acids
- ionic iron transported into mucosal cells, binds to ferritin (in liver)
- protein that stores iron
- takes part in serving as local storehouses for iron
% of Carbohydrates in Diet
40-65% of calories
% of Proteins in Diet
12-20% of calories
% Fats in Diet
20-35% of calories
Malabsorption of Nutrients
- 1. anything that interfered with delivery of bile/pancreatic juice
- 2. factors that damage intestinal mucosa (bacteria infection)
- 3. Gluten (Celiac disease): damages intestinal villi and reduces length of microvilli
- presence of food in stomach activates this
- initiates peristalsis that forces contents toward rectum
- lies below ileocecal valve
- first part of large intestine
- contains masses of lymphoid tissue
- part of MALT (mucosa associated lymphatic tissue): protects passages open to exterior from foreign matter
- 3 band of longitudinal smooth muscle in its muscularis
- pocketlike sacs caused by tone of tenaie coli
- slow segmenting movement move contents of colon and contract
fat-filled pouches of visceral peritoneum
____% of water is absorbed in large intestines by_____.
Bacterial Flora consists of:
- bacteria surviving small intestine that enter cecum
- bacteria entering via anus
What does Bacterial Flora do?
- colonize colon
- ferment indigestible carbs
- release irritating acids and gases
- synthesize B complex vitamins and vitamin K(liver requires these to synthesize some clotting proteins)
- 1. Consuming too many carbs: sugar is fermented by bacteria
- 2. Consuming indigestible foods: beans are high carb and mostly indigestible
- 3. Excessive Enzymes:
- 4. Not chewing and swallowing air: gum
- 5. Intestinal infections: contaminated food/ water give bloating/loose stools
_____, ______, and _____ are reclaimed within Large intestine.
Major function of Large intestine
propulsion of fecal material toward anus
Though the colon is essential for comfort, ...
not essential for life.
Haustra help with...
- moving content of colon through peristalsis
- stimulated by distension
- they contract
____ valves of rectum stop feces from being passed with gas.
Anus has 2 sphincters:
- 1. Internal sphincter: smooth muscle, involuntary, parasympathetic
- 2. External sphincter: skeletal muscle, voluntary
when mass movements force feces into it, stretching rectal wall initiates this
Prevention of colon cancer can be done by...
regular dental and medical exams
Metastisized colon cancers cause...
secondary liver cancer
Stomach and colon cancers _____have early sign and symptoms.
Colon Cancer is ___ largest cause of cancer deaths in _____.
How does colon cancer start?
- benign mucosal tumors called polyps
- increases with age
During fetal life, nutrition is via______, but GI tract is stimulated toward maturity by _______ ______ swallowed in uterus.
Rooting and Sucking reflex
- helps infant find nipple, dark purple color
- aids in swallowing
In old age, Digestive System is...
- activity declines
- absorption less efficient
- peristalsis slowed
- Body Metabolic Rate
- how many calories you can burn within one day without activity
how much fat content you have