Digestive Part 3

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Digestive Part 3
2011-04-10 12:16:36
GI tract Stomach etc

Part 3 of the Digestive System
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  1. Unsaturated Fat
    • good fats
    • liquid at room temp
    • found in plant and fish oils
    • *prevents saturated fats from being turned into cholesterol
  2. Saturated Fat
    • bad fats
    • solid at room temp
    • found in animal food
    • palm and coconut oil
    • broken down in liver to cholesterol
  3. Trans Fat
    • Take unsaturated fat and fill bonds with hydrogen to make it saturated
    • partially hydrogenated oil
  4. Absorption process of Chemical Digestion: Carbohydrates:
    • enter capillary bed in villi
    • transported to liver via hepatic portal vein
  5. Enzymes used in Chemical Digestion of Carbohydrates:
    • salivary amylase
    • pancreatic amylase
    • brush border enzymes
  6. How do fatty acids and monoglycerides enter intestinal walls?
  7. Fatty acids are combined with ______ within the cells and what is the result?
    • proteins
    • Chylomicrons are the result (lipoprotein droplets)
  8. Where do chylomicrons enter?
    lacteals and then transport to ciruclation by lymph system
  9. Difference between Lipid (fat) absorption and amino acids and simple sugars:
    • Lipids are changed through epithelial cells
    • amino acids and simple sugars go through unchanged
  10. How are Nucelic Acids chemically digested?
    • active transport via membrane carriers
    • absorbed in villi and transported to liver via hepatic portal vein
  11. What are the Enzymes used in Chemical Digestion of Nucelic Acids?
    • pancreatic ribonucleases
    • deoxyribonuclease
    • *in small intestines
  12. How are electrolytes absorbed?
    • ions are actively absorbed along length of small intestine
    • Sodium is coupled with glucose and amino acids
    • ionic iron transported into mucosal cells, binds to ferritin (in liver)
  13. Ferritin
    • protein that stores iron
    • takes part in serving as local storehouses for iron
  14. % of Carbohydrates in Diet
    40-65% of calories
  15. % of Proteins in Diet
    12-20% of calories
  16. % Fats in Diet
    20-35% of calories
  17. Malabsorption of Nutrients
    • 1. anything that interfered with delivery of bile/pancreatic juice
    • 2. factors that damage intestinal mucosa (bacteria infection)
    • 3. Gluten (Celiac disease): damages intestinal villi and reduces length of microvilli
  18. Gastrocolic Reflex
    • presence of food in stomach activates this
    • initiates peristalsis that forces contents toward rectum
  19. Cecum
    • saclike
    • lies below ileocecal valve
    • first part of large intestine
  20. Vermiform Appendix
    • wormlike
    • contains masses of lymphoid tissue
    • part of MALT (mucosa associated lymphatic tissue): protects passages open to exterior from foreign matter
  21. Teniae coli
    • 3 band of longitudinal smooth muscle in its muscularis
    • peristalsis
  22. Haustra
    • pocketlike sacs caused by tone of tenaie coli
    • slow segmenting movement move contents of colon and contract
  23. Epiploic appendages
    fat-filled pouches of visceral peritoneum
  24. ____% of water is absorbed in large intestines by_____.
    • 95
    • osmosis
  25. Bacterial Flora consists of:
    • bacteria surviving small intestine that enter cecum
    • bacteria entering via anus
  26. What does Bacterial Flora do?
    • colonize colon
    • ferment indigestible carbs
    • release irritating acids and gases
    • synthesize B complex vitamins and vitamin K(liver requires these to synthesize some clotting proteins)
  27. Flatuence
    • 1. Consuming too many carbs: sugar is fermented by bacteria
    • 2. Consuming indigestible foods: beans are high carb and mostly indigestible
    • 3. Excessive Enzymes:
    • 4. Not chewing and swallowing air: gum
    • 5. Intestinal infections: contaminated food/ water give bloating/loose stools
  28. _____, ______, and _____ are reclaimed within Large intestine.
    • Vitamins
    • water
    • Electrolytes
  29. Major function of Large intestine
    propulsion of fecal material toward anus
  30. Though the colon is essential for comfort, ...
    not essential for life.
  31. Haustra help with...
    • moving content of colon through peristalsis
    • stimulated by distension
    • they contract
  32. ____ valves of rectum stop feces from being passed with gas.
  33. Anus has 2 sphincters:
    • 1. Internal sphincter: smooth muscle, involuntary, parasympathetic
    • 2. External sphincter: skeletal muscle, voluntary
  34. Defecation Reflex
    when mass movements force feces into it, stretching rectal wall initiates this
  35. Prevention of colon cancer can be done by...
    regular dental and medical exams
  36. Metastisized colon cancers cause...
    secondary liver cancer
  37. Stomach and colon cancers _____have early sign and symptoms.
  38. Colon Cancer is ___ largest cause of cancer deaths in _____.
    • 2nd
    • males
  39. How does colon cancer start?
    • benign mucosal tumors called polyps
    • increases with age
  40. During fetal life, nutrition is via______, but GI tract is stimulated toward maturity by _______ ______ swallowed in uterus.
    • placenta
    • amniotic fluid
  41. Rooting and Sucking reflex
    • helps infant find nipple, dark purple color
    • aids in swallowing
  42. In old age, Digestive System is...
    • activity declines
    • absorption less efficient
    • peristalsis slowed
  43. BMR
    • Body Metabolic Rate
    • how many calories you can burn within one day without activity
  44. BMI
    how much fat content you have