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2011-04-10 19:29:22

A&P Chapter 1
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  1. Anatomy
    Study of internal & external structure & the physical relationships between body parts. Greek origin "a cutting open".
  2. Physiology
    Study of how living organisms perform their vital functions.
  3. Homeostasis
    Refers to the the existence of a stable internal environment. (homeo, unchanging + stasis, standing)
  4. Positive Feedback
    Initial stimulus produces a response that reinforces that stimulus.
  5. Negative Feedback
    Variation outside normal limits triggers an automatic response that corrects the situation.
  6. Frontal Plane
    Runs along the long axis of the body. Extends laterally (side by side)
  7. Sagittal Plane
    Runs along the long axis of the body. Extends anteriorly & posteriorly (front to back). Divides the body into left & right portions.
  8. Transverse Plane
    Lies at right angles to the long (head to foot) axis of the body
  9. Thoracic Cavity
    Contains 3 internal chambers: a single pericardial cavity & a pair of pleural cavities.
  10. Abdominopelvic Cavity
    Extends from the diaphragm to the pelvis. Portion of the ventral body cavity that contains abdominal & pelvic subdivisions.
  11. Visceral (layer)
    Portion of a serous membrane that covers a visceral organ.
  12. Parietal (layer)
    The opposing layer of the visceral layer that lines the inner surface of the body wall or chamber.
  13. Lateral
    Away from the body's longitudinal axis.
  14. Medial
    Toward the body's longitudinal axis.
  15. Distal
    Away from an attached base.
  16. Proximal
    Toward the attached base.
  17. Superior
    Above; at a higher level (in the human body
  18. Inferior
    Below; at a lower level
  19. Anterior
    The front; before
  20. Posterior
    The back; behind
  21. Ventral
    The belly side (equivalent to anterior when referring to the human body)
  22. Cranial (cephalic)
    The head
  23. Caudal
    The tail (coccyx in humans)
  24. Dorsal
    Torward the back, posterior.
  25. Levels of Organization
    • 1) Chemical (or Molecular)
    • 2) Cellular
    • 3) Tissue
    • 4) Organ
    • 5) Organ System
    • 6) Organism
  26. Chemical (or Molecular) Level
    Atoms, the smallest stable units of matter, combine to form molecules with complex shapes. Even at this simplest level, a molecule's specialized shape determines its function.
  27. Cellular Level
    Different molecules can interact to form larger structures, each of which has a specific function in a cell. (different types of protein filaments interact to produce the contractions of muscle cells in the heart)
  28. Tissue Level
    Tissue is composed of similar cells that work together to perform a specific function. (heart muscle cells form cardiac muscle tissue)
  29. Organ Level
    Organ consists of two or more different tissues that work together to perform speific functions. (heart, a hollow 3D organ w/ walls composed of layers of cardiac muscle & other tissues)
  30. Organ System Level
    Organs interact in organ systems. Each time the heart contracts, it pushes blood into a network of blood vessels. (heard, blood, & blood vessels form the cardiovascular system)
  31. Organism Level
    All of the organ systems of the body work together to maintain life & health. (human being)
  32. Homeostasis & Disease
    When homeostatic regulation fails & is no longer able to maintain a stable internal enviroment, organ systems begin to malfunction, & the individual experiences the syptoms of illness, or disease.