Study of internal & external structure & the physical relationships between body parts. Greek origin "a cutting open".
Study of how living organisms perform their vital functions.
Refers to the the existence of a stable internal environment. (homeo, unchanging + stasis, standing)
Initial stimulus produces a response that reinforces that stimulus.
Variation outside normal limits triggers an automatic response that corrects the situation.
Runs along the long axis of the body. Extends laterally (side by side)
Runs along the long axis of the body. Extends anteriorly & posteriorly (front to back). Divides the body into left & right portions.
Lies at right angles to the long (head to foot) axis of the body
Contains 3 internal chambers: a single pericardial cavity & a pair of pleural cavities.
Extends from the diaphragm to the pelvis. Portion of the ventral body cavity that contains abdominal & pelvic subdivisions.
Portion of a serous membrane that covers a visceral organ.
The opposing layer of the visceral layer that lines the inner surface of the body wall or chamber.
Away from the body's longitudinal axis.
Toward the body's longitudinal axis.
Away from an attached base.
Toward the attached base.
Above; at a higher level (in the human body
Below; at a lower level
The front; before
The back; behind
The belly side (equivalent to anterior when referring to the human body)
The tail (coccyx in humans)
Torward the back, posterior.
Levels of Organization
1) Chemical (or Molecular)
5) Organ System
Chemical (or Molecular) Level
Atoms, the smallest stable units of matter, combine to form molecules with complex shapes. Even at this simplest level, a molecule's specialized shape determines its function.
Different molecules can interact to form larger structures, each of which has a specific function in a cell. (different types of protein filaments interact to produce the contractions of muscle cells in the heart)
Tissue is composed of similar cells that work together to perform a specific function. (heart muscle cells form cardiac muscle tissue)
Organ consists of two or more different tissues that work together to perform speific functions. (heart, a hollow 3D organ w/ walls composed of layers of cardiac muscle & other tissues)
Organ System Level
Organs interact in organ systems. Each time the heart contracts, it pushes blood into a network of blood vessels. (heard, blood, & blood vessels form the cardiovascular system)
All of the organ systems of the body work together to maintain life & health. (human being)
Homeostasis & Disease
When homeostatic regulation fails & is no longer able to maintain a stable internal enviroment, organ systems begin to malfunction, & the individual experiences the syptoms of illness, or disease.