Energy Balance and Healthy Body Weight

Card Set Information

Author:
pockz
ID:
78616
Filename:
Energy Balance and Healthy Body Weight
Updated:
2011-04-10 15:15:53
Tags:
health
Folders:

Description:
Nutrition
Show Answers:

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview

The flashcards below were created by user pockz on FreezingBlue Flashcards. What would you like to do?


  1. BMI
    • Being both overweight and underweight present risks to health
    • –Overweight: over
    • fatness of moderate degree
    • BMI 25.0 - 29.9
    • –Underweight: too little body fat
    • BMI<18.5
  2. How to Calculate BMI
    • Measurement of weight (in
    • lbs.) divided by height (in inches) squared, then multiplied by 703
    • -For Example:

    Your instructor’s pre-pregnancy weight = 161 lbs, and height 5’9”

    163/ (69)2 x 703 = 24.07 (healthy – whew!!)
  3. BMI (Body Mass Index)
    • 18.5-24.9 heathly
    • 25-29.9 overweight
    • 30-39.9 obese
    • <40 morbidly obese
  4. Pitfalls
    of BMI
    Doesn’t measure fat %

    • Doesn’t work for athletes,
    • elderly (shrinking), or pregnant/lactating women

    • Can’t measure fat location,
    • also a factor

    • –Visceral fat – found around the stomach
    • (central obesity), more health risk with this

    • –Subcutaneous fat – found below the skin, less
    • attractive but less health risks
  5. The Price
    of Obesity
    Health costs

    • Increase risk of
    • stroke, diabetes, some cancers, high blood pressure, heart attack

    • Second only to
    • tobacco use in causes of preventable death

    Social costs

    • Ridicule, loss
    • of social acceptance

    • Inability to
    • participate in activities

    Financial costs

    • Billions spend
    • each year treating effects of obesity
  6. What causes weight gain?
    • More energy input than
    • energy output

    Extra calories stored as FAT

    • 1 lb of fat =
    • about 3,500 calories

    • Need to know your Estimated
    • Energy Requirements

    • Accounts for
    • age, height, weight, gender, and physical activity

    • Affected by your
    • BMR and voluntary activities
  7. BMR vs.
    Voluntary Activities
    Voluntary activities

    • Sports, working
    • out, things we do extra that require energy

    • Over time, these
    • things increase our BMR

    • Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) –
    • the energy required to sustain life

    • Maintaining body
    • temperature, functioning systems, etc..

    • Affected by
    • thyroid, pregnancy, height, gender, etc.

    • The more lean muscle, the
    • higher your BMR

    • Estimated men –
    • (lbs) x 2.2 kg x 24 = calories needed/day

    • Extimated women – (lbs) x
    • 2.2 kg x 22 = calories needed/day
  8. How do I measure Fat?
    How much is ideal?
    Measure Body Composition by:

    • Fat fold test –
    • pinches skin under arm /on back

    • X-ray absorption
    • – measures density

    • Underwater test
    • – fat less dense than water
    • Electrical
    • impedance – fat doesn’t conduct electricity well

    • Ideal fat %
    • Women – 20-30%
    • of body mass
    • Men – 12-20% of
    • body mass
  9. What causes Obesity?
    • Stress
    • Birth order, genetics
    • Increased wealth
    • Lower education
    • Sedentary lifestyle
    • Meal skipping
    • Maternal obesity/famine during gestation
    • Many, many more – What do
    • you think is the biggest factor?
  10. Hunger, Appetite and Hormones
    • Ghrelin – released in stomach,
    • triggers brain to feel “hunger”

    • Endorphins – associated with
    • “feeling good” after exercise, can by released in response to other stimuli
    • (i.e. smell of apple pie), stimulate “appetite”

    • Leptin – triggers that “full”
    • feeling, studies show low levels of leptin
    • associated with obesity

    Satiety- sense of fullness, the state of being satiated

    Appetite- the psychological need for food

    Hunger- the physiological need for food
  11. Why “diets” don’t work
    • “Diets” don’t work, they are
    • short term

    • Only life-changing habits
    • work

    • What happens on a strict
    • ”diet”

    • Initial rapid
    • weight loss due to using glycogen stores and water loss

    • Brain start
    • using fats for energy, leads to fatigue, headaches, weakness

    • Lean muscle can
    • be converted into energy, body starts “wasting”, use of proteins increases
    • nitrogen waste, hard on kidneys

    • Body “thinks”
    • it’s a famine, slows down BMR, hold onto foods better, leads to constipation,
    • and when you “cheat” the lower BMR causes the yo-yo effect
  12. The Best Approach
    • Eat small, frequent meals –
    • body never goes into “starvation” mode

    Balance between carbs, fats, and protein

    • Glucose to feed
    • the brain

    • Fiber for a
    • health GI tract

    • Fats for
    • hormones, padding, etc..

    • Proteins for
    • enzymes, muscles, etc..

    • Exercise, Exercise, Exercise
    • – it keeps your BMR up and your heart rate down
  13. Disorders of Eating Habits
    • Bulimia nervosa - purge, binge
    • Anorexia nervosa - self starvation
  14. Carb Loading
    eat carb rich meals before big event, max out glycogen stores

What would you like to do?

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview