Vitamins

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julieaburch
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78617
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Vitamins
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2011-04-10 15:09:06
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Vitamins
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Vitamins
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  1. These are chemically unrelated organic compounds that cannot be synthesized in adequate quantities by humans and, therefore, must be supplied by the diet
    Vitamins
  2. What are the nine water-soluble vitamins?
    • Folic Acid
    • Cobalamin (Vit B12)
    • Ascorbic Acid (Vit C)
    • Pyridoxine (Vit B6)
    • Thiamine (Vit B1)
    • Niacin
    • Riboflavin (Vit B2)
    • Biotin
    • Pantothenic Acid
  3. What are the four fat-soluble vitamins?
    • Vitamin A
    • Vitamin D
    • Vitamin E
    • Vitamin K
  4. What is the active form of Folic Acid?
    Tetrahydrofolic Acid
  5. What is the function of Folic Acid?
    • Transfer one-carbon units
    • Synthesis of methionine, purines, and thymidine monophosphate
  6. What two syndromes result from a folic acid deficiency, and what are their signs and symptoms?
    • Megaloblastic Anemia -- Anemia
    • Neural Tube Defects -- Birth Defects
  7. What is the toxicity related to Folic Acid?
    None -- but administration of high levels can mask Vitamin B12 deficiency
  8. What is the chemical name for Vitamin B12?
    Cobalamin
  9. What is the active form of Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin)?
    • Methylcobalamin
    • Deoxyadenosyl cobalamin
  10. What is the function of Vitamin B12 (cobalamin)?
    • Coenzyme for reactions:
    • Homocysteine --> methionine
    • Methylmalonyl CoA --> succinyl CoA
  11. What clinical syndromes are associated with a Vitamin B12 Deficiency (cobalamin), and what are some of the associated signs and symptoms?
    • Syndromes: Pernicious Anemia, Dementia, and Spinal Degeneration
    • Symptoms: Megaloblastic Anemia, Neuropsychiatric Symptoms
  12. How is Pernicious Anemia associated with Vitamin B12 Deficiency treated?
    IM or high-dose oral vitamin B12
  13. What is the chemical name of Vitamin C?
    Ascorbic Acid
  14. What is the active form of Vitamin C ?
    Ascorbic Acid
  15. What is the function of Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid)?
    • Antioxidant
    • Coenzyme for hydroxylation reactions -- ie in Procollagen: Proline --> hydroxyproline and Lysine --> hydroxylysine
  16. What is the clinical syndrome associated with a Vitamin C Deficiency, and what are its signs and symptoms?
    • Scurvy
    • Sore, spongy gums; loose teeth; poor wound healing
  17. What is the toxicity associated with Vitamin B12?
    None
  18. What is the toxicity associated with Vitamin C?
    None
  19. What are the chemical names for Vitamin B6?
    • Pyridoxine
    • Pyridoxamine
    • Pyridoxal
  20. What is the active form of Vitamin B6?
    Pyridoxal Phosphate
  21. What is the function of Vitamin B6?
    Coenzyme for enzymes, particularly in amino acid metabolism
  22. Although a Vitamin B6 Deficiency is rare, what are the signs and symptoms of one?
    • Glossitis
    • Neuropathy
  23. What is the toxicity associated with Vitamin B6, and what can cause it?
    • Deficiency can be induced by Isoniazid
    • Sensory neuropathy occurs at high doses
  24. What is the chemical name of Vitamin B1?
    Thiamine
  25. What is the active form of Vitamin B1?
    Thiamine Pyrophosphate
  26. What is the function of Vitamin B1?
    • Coenzyme of enzymes catalyzing:
    • Pyruvate --> Acetyl CoA
    • alpha-Ketoglutarate --> Succinyl CoA
    • Ribose 5-P + Xylulose 5-P --> Sedoheptulose 7-P + Glyceraldehyde 3-P
    • Branched-chain amino acid oxidation
  27. What syndromes are associated with a Vitamin B1 Deficiency, and what are their signs and symptoms?
    • Beriberi: Tachycardia, vomiting, convulsions
    • Wernicke-Korsakoff: Apathy, loss of memory, eye movements
  28. What is the toxicity associated with Vitamin B1?
    None
  29. What is the chemical name for Niacin?
    • Nicotinic Acid
    • Nicotinamide
  30. What is the active form of Niacin?
    • NAD+
    • NADP+
  31. What is the function of Niacin?
    Electron Transfer
  32. What syndrome is associated with Niacin, and what is its signs and symptoms?
    Pellagra: Dermatitis, Diarrhea, Dementia
  33. What is the toxicity associated with Niacin?
    None
  34. High doses of Niacin are used to treat what?
    Hyperlipidemia
  35. What is the chemical name for Vitamin B2?
    Riboflavin
  36. What is the active form of Vitamin B2?
    • FMN
    • FAD
  37. What is the function of Vitamin B2?
    Electron Transfer
  38. Although a deficiency of Vitamin B2 is rare, what are the signs and symptoms of such a deficiency?
    • Dermatitis
    • Angular Stomatitis
  39. What is the toxicity associated with Vitamin B2?
    None
  40. What is the active form of Biotin?
    Enzyme-bound Biotin
  41. What is the function of Biotin?
    Carboxylation Reactions
  42. What can induce a Biotin Deficiency?
    Consumption of large amounts of raw egg whites (which contains a protein, avidin, that binds biotin)
  43. What is the toxicity associated with Biotin?
    None
  44. What is the active form of Pantothenic Acid?
    Coenzyme A
  45. What is the function of Pantothenic Acid?
    Acyl Carrier
  46. What is the toxicity associated with Pantothenic Acid?
    None
  47. What are the four chemical names of Vitamin A?
    • Retinol
    • Retinal
    • Retinoic Acid
    • beta-Carotene
  48. What are the three active forms of Vitamin A?
    • Retinol
    • Retinal
    • Retinoic Acid
  49. What are the five functions of Vitamin A?
    • Maintenance of reproduction
    • Vision
    • Promotion of growth
    • Differentiation and maintenance of epithelial tissues
    • Gene expression
  50. What are the 4 clinical syndromes associated with a Vitamin A deficiency, and what are the signs and symptoms of such a deficiency?
    • Syndromes: Infertility, night blindness, retardation of growth, Xerophthalmia
    • Symptoms: increased visual threshold, dryness of cornea
  51. What is the toxicity associated with Vitamin A?
    Excess Vitamin A can increase incidence of fractures
  52. What are the two chemical names of Vitamin D?
    • Cholecalciferol
    • Ergocalciferol
  53. What is the active form of Vitamin D?
    1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol
  54. What is the function of Vitamin D?
    Calcium Uptake
  55. What are the two clinical syndromes associated with a deficiency in Vitamin D, and what are the signs and symptoms?
    • Syndromes: Rickets (in children); Osteomalacia (in adults)
    • Symptoms: soft, pliable bones
  56. Why is Vitamin D not considered a true vitamin?
    Vitamin D is not a true vitamin because it can be synthesized in skin. Application of sunscreen or presence of dark skin color decreases its synthesis
  57. Is there toxicity associated with Vitamin D?
    Yes
  58. What are the three chemical names for Vitamin K?
    • Menadione
    • Menaquinone
    • Phylloquinone
  59. What are the three active forms of Vitamin K?
    • Menadione
    • Menaquinone
    • Phylloquinone
  60. What is the function of Vitamin K?
    gamma-carboxylation of glutamate residue in clotting and other proteins
  61. Is a deficiency in Vitamin K more common in children or adults? What is the sign of this deficiency?
    • Newborns
    • Bleeding
  62. What is Vitamin K produced by?
    Intestinal Bacteria
  63. Vitamin K deficiency is common in newborns. What is recommended at birth to combat this?
    Intramuscular treatment with Vitamin K
  64. What is the chemical name of Vitamin E?
    alpha-Tocopherol
  65. What is the active form of Vitamin E?
    Any of several Tocopherol derivatives
  66. What is the function of Vitamin E?
    Antioxidant
  67. Although a deficiency of Vitamin E is rare, what are its signs and symptoms?
    Red blood cell fragility leads to hemolytic anemia
  68. What is the toxicity associated with Vitamin E?
    None

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