Zoology structures!!!

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Zoology structures!!!
2011-04-10 16:03:07
Arthropods Annelids Echinoderms exam

Terms for structures of Arthropods, Annelids, and Echinoderms, Exam 3
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  1. Septa
    • thin sheets of tissue
    • divide segments
  2. Peritoneum
    layer of mesodermal epithelium that lines body wall
  3. Pygidium
    bears anus (terminal portion) where new segment forms
  4. What term describes the alternating waves of contraction by longitudinal and circular muscles passing down the body?
    Peristaltic contractions
  5. Parapodia
    • specialized sense organs
    • used for crawling, swimming, anchoring
  6. Typhisole
    Chloragogen cells outer layer function like liver
  7. Chloragogen cells
    synthesize glycogen and fat and can break down to distribute nutrients to coelom
  8. Nephridia
    • functional unit of kidney
    • excretory organ
  9. Hypodermis
    • secrete cuticle
    • circular and longitudinal muscles lie inside
  10. Peristomium
    First complete body segment that encircles mouth
  11. Prostomium
    Triangular mass of tissue located on top of the peristomium
  12. Biramous
    2 branched
  13. Setae
    chitinous bristles
  14. clitellum
    conspicuous swollen region including several segments located near the anterior end
  15. nephridiostome
    ciliated funnel, lies anterior to intersegmental septum and leads by a small ciliated tubule through the septom into the segment behind connecting with the main part of nephridium
  16. Crop
    stores food
  17. Gizzard
    grinds food into smaller pieces
  18. Intestine
    Food is digested and absorbed
  19. chlorogogue tissue
    yellowish layer covering much of intestine that is not directly involved in digestion but stores glycogen and lipids
  20. Annuli
    numerous rings around the body
  21. uniramous
  22. Molting
    periodically replace its exoskeleton with new larger version
  23. Carapace
    • Hard covering of arthropods
    • Horseshoe crabs=carapace on cephalothorax
  24. Spiracle
    entrance to trachea
  25. Lung slit
    marks the entrance to the book lungs
  26. Tagmata
    anterior head, large throax, and smaller postabdomen
  27. Cervical groove
    represents the line of fusion between the head and thorax
  28. Chelae
    large pincers
  29. Mandible
    • basal segment of protopodite greatly enlarged as functional jaw
    • second segment small and forming the base of the palpus
  30. Uropod function?
    swimming and egg protection
  31. Swimmeret function?
    • 1-2= reproduction (in male)
    • 3-5= h20 circulation, carrying eggs and young
  32. Function of Cheliped?
    Offense, defense, food catching and handling
  33. Function of maxillipeds?
    Touch, taste, food handling
  34. Function of Maxillas? How many are there?
    • Food handling.
    • 2
  35. Function of mandible
    Biting food
  36. Function of antenna?
    Touch and taste
  37. Function of antennule?
    • Equilibrium
    • touch
    • taste
  38. Malpighian Tubes
    • extend from anterior of hindgut
    • empty into gut
    • remove metabolic waste materials and regulate the concentration of various ions in body fluids
  39. Coxa
    • in the grasshopper
    • one of the 5 main segments of the legs
    • attached to the ventral body wall
  40. Book gills
    respiratory organs consisting of many thin highly vascularized sheets of tissue in Limulus
  41. Chelicera
    • pincer-like first appendage
    • chelicerata characteristic
  42. Green glands
    • type of excretory organ found in crayfish and other crustacea
    • located near base of antennae
  43. Madreporite
    • light-colored circular area near the edge of disc at junction of 2 rays
    • serves as entrance to water vascular system
  44. ossicles
    skeletal calcareous plates
  45. Water vascular system
    • specialized part of the coelom and is lined with ciliated epithelium
    • functions in locomotion, feeding,gas exchange, excretion and sensory perception
    • Parts: madreporite, stone canal, circular canal, and radial canals,
  46. Peristome
    circular oral membrane surrounding mouth w/5 calcareous teeth
  47. Aristotle's Lantern
    internal complex chewing apparatus which anchors the teeth and enables them to scrape algae from submerged rocks along the shore
  48. Oral tentacles
    • Surrounds mouth
    • modified tube feet that are contant motion
    • food particles collect on the sticky surfaces and are passed into pharynx
  49. Ambulacral groove
    one of 5 longitudinal grooves on the oral side of the arms of a sea star that bear many tube feet
  50. Pedicellariae
    • small pincerlike structures found on many sea stars, sea urchins, and brittle stars
    • serve to keep the body surface free from debris and fouling organisms
  51. Test
    rigid endoskeleton composed of many fused calcareous plates such as exhibited by sea urchins