Principles First Test

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Principles First Test
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  1. Define sociology.
    Is the systematic study of human society and social interaction.
  2. Explain how sociology helps us to better understand our social world and our selves.
    Sociology is the systematic study of human society and social interaction. We study sociology to understand how human behavior is shaped by group life and, in turn, how group life is affected by individuals. Our culture tends to emphasize individualism, and sociology pushes us to consider more-complex connections between our personal lives and the larger world.
  3. Define and give examples of high-, middle-, and low-income countries.
    • The world's high-income countries are nations with highly industrialized economies; technologically advanced industrial, administrative, and serve occupations; and relatively high levels of national and personal income. (Examples- United States, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Japan, and Countries of Western Europe).
    • Middle-income countries are nations with industrializing economics, particularly in urban areas, and moderate levels of national and personal income. (Nations of Eastern Europe, and many Latin American Countries-Brazil and Mexico).
    • Low-income countries are primarily agrarian nations with little industrialization and low levels of national and personal income. (Many nations of Africa and Asia-India and Peoples Republic of China).
  4. Explain how sociological theory helps us to understand social issues like consumerism.
  5. Distinguish between commonsense knowledge, myths and sociological knowledge.
    • Commonsense knowledge guides ordinary conduct in everyday life. We often rely on common sense-or "what everybody knows"-to answer key questions about behavior.
    • Many commonsense notions are actually myths. A myth is a popular but false notion that may be used, either intentionally or unintentionally, to perpetuate certain beliefs or "theories" even in the light of conclusive evidence to the contrary. Like money can buy happiness.
    • Sociological knowledge is the result of sociology. It is the knowledge sociologists get from studying human societies and their social interactions to develop theories of how human behavior is shaped by group life and how, in turn, group life is affected by individuals.
  6. Explain what C. Wright Mills meant by the sociological imagination.
    According to C. Wright Mills, the sociological imagination helps us understand how seemingly personal troubles, such as suicide, are actually related to larger social forces. It is the ability to see the relationship between individual experiences and the larger society. It is important to have a global sociological imagination because the future of this nation is deeply intertwined with the future of all nations of the world on economic, political, and humanitarian levels.
  7. Define race, ethnicity, class, sex, and gender, and explain the importance of these terms to developing a sociological imagination.
    • Race is used to specify groups of people distinguished by physical characteristics such as skin color. There are no "pure" racial types. Most sociologists consider race to be a social construction people use to justify social inequalities.
    • Ethnicity is the cultural heritage or identity of a group. It is based on factors such as language or country of origin.
    • Class is the relative location of a person or group within the larger society. It is based on wealth, power, prestige, or other valued resources.
    • Sex is the biological and anatomical differences between females and males.
    • Gender is the meanings, beliefs, and practices associated with sex differences, referred to as femininity and masculinity.
  8. Identify Auguste Comte, Harriet Martineau, and Herbert Spencer, and explain their unique contributions to the emergence of sociology.
    • August Comte is considered to be the "founder of sociology." Comte�s philosophy became known as positivism- a belief that he world can best be understood through scientific inquiry. Comte believed objective, bias-free knowledge was attainable only through the use of science.
    • Harriet Martineau believed society would improve when: women and men were treated equally, knowledge gained from science is used to reform society, and cooperation existed among all social classes.
    • Herbert Spencer's major contribution to sociology was an evolutionary perspective on social order and social change. Social Darwinism- the belief that those human beings, best adapted to their environment will survive and prosper, whereas those poorly adapted will die out.
  9. Explain what Durkheim meant by his use of the terms social facts and anomie.
    One of Durkheim's most important contributions was the idea that societies are built on social facts. Social facts are patterned ways of acting, thinking, and feeling that exist outside any one individual but that exert social control over each person. Durkheim observed that rapid social change and a more specialized division of labor produce strains in society. These strains lead to a breakdown in traditional organization, values, and authority and to a dramatic increase in anomie- a condition in which social control becomes ineffective as a result of the loss of shared values and of a sense of purpose in society.
  10. Identify and discuss the key assumptions of the Age of Enlightenment.
    The origins of sociological thinking can be traced to the scientific revolution in the late 17th and mid-18th centuries and the Age of Enlightenment. In France, the Enlightenment was dominated by the philosophers, including Montesquieu, Rousseau, and Turgot. They believed human society could be improved through scientific discoveries. If people were free from the ignorance of the past, they could create new forms of political and economic organization, which would produce wealth and destroy the aristocracy. The Enlightenment produced an intellectual revolution in how people thought about social change, progress, and critical thinking. The philosophers wrote about equal opportunity. Their writings about equal opportunity stirred political and economic revolutions in America and France. In the 18th and 19th century, the Industrial Revolution occurred. The technology shifted from agriculture to manufacturing.
  11. Describe the origins of sociology in the United States and discuss the role of women in early departments of sociology and social work.
    From Western Europe, sociology spread in the 1890s to the United States, where it thrived as a result of the intellectual climate and the rapid rate of social change. The first departments of sociology in the United States were located at the University of Chicago and at Atlanta University. Jane Adams is one of the best-known early women sociologists in the United States because she founded the Hull House, one of the most famous settlement houses, in an impoverished area of Chicago. She lectured at numerous colleges, was a charter member of the American Sociological Society, and published a number of articles and books. Awarded a Nobel Prize for her assistance to the underprivileged.
  12. Distinguish between microlevel and macrolevel analyses and state which level of analysis is utilized by each of the major theoretical perspectives.
    The conflict and functionalist perspectives have been criticized for focusing primarily on macrolevel analysis. A macrolevel analysis examines whole societies, large-scale social structures, and social systems. Instead of looking at important social dynamics in individual's lives, symbolic interactionism fills this void by examining people's day-to-day interactions and their behavior in groups. Thus, symbolic interactionist approaches are based on a microlevel analysis, which focuses on small groups rather than on large-scale social structures. Postmodernist can be either or.
  13. Define industrialization and urbanization, and explain the role of each in furthering sociological thought.
    Industrialization is the process by which societies are transformed from dependence on agriculture and handmade products to an emphasis on manufacturing and related industries. Industrialization leads to urbanization, the process by which an increasing proportion of a population lives in cities rather than in rural areas.
  14. State the major assumptions of functionalism, conflict theory, symbolic interactionism, postmodernism, and identify the major contributors to each perspective.
    • The functionalist perspective that view society as composed of interrelated parts that work together to maintain stability within society. This stability is threatened by dysfunctional acts and institutions. Talcott Parsons and Robert K. Merton contributed to the functionalist perspective.
    • The conflict perspective viewed society as characterized by social inequality; social life is a struggle for scarce resources. Social arrangements benefit some groups at the expense of others. Max Weber and C. Wright Mills contributed to the conflict perspective.
    • The symbolic interactionist perspective view society as the sum of the interactions of people and groups. Behavior is learned in interaction with other people; how people define a situation becomes the foundation for how they behave. George Herbert Mead and Herbert Blumer contributed to the symbolic interactionist perspective.
    • Postmodernist perspective views societies as characterized by postindustrialization, consumerism, and global communications bring into question existing assumptions about social life and the nature of reality. Jean Baudrillard contributed to the postmodernist perspective.
  15. Contrast Karl Marx's perspective on social change with that of Max Weber.
    • Karl Marx viewed history as a clash between conflicting ideas and forces. He believed class conflict produced social change and a better society. His philosophy/theories formed the basis for the Communist Revolution in Russia and China. He focused on the exploitation and oppression of the proletariat (the workers) by the bourgeoisie (the owners or capitalist class).
    • Max Weber recognized the importance of economic conditions in producing inequality and conflict in society but added power and prestige as other sources of inequality. Weber defined power as the ability of a person within a social relationship to carry out his or her own will despite resistance from others, and prestige as a positive or negative social estimation of honor.
  16. Compare sociology with other sciences and determine areas of overlap and important differences.
    • Anthropology seeks to understand human existence over geographic space and evolutionary time. Sociology seeks to understand contemporary social organization, relations, and change.
    • Psychology is the study of behavior and mental processes - what occurs in the mind. Sociological research examines the effects of groups, organizations, and institutions on social life.
    • Economists attempt to explain how society's limited resources are allocated among competing demands. Economists focus on economic systems such as monetary policy, inflation, and the national debt. Sociologists focus on a number of social institutions, one of which is the economy.
    • Political scientists concentrate on political institutions. Sociologists study political institutions within the context of other social institutions, such as families.
  17. Sociology
    The systematic study of human society and social interaction.
  18. Society
    A large social grouping that shares the same geographical territory and is subject to the same political authority and dominant cultural expectations.
  19. Sociological Imagination
    C. Wright Mill's term for the ability to see the relationship between individual experiences and the larger society.
  20. High-income Countries
    (Sometimes referred to as industrial countries) Nations with highly industrialized economies; technologically advanced industrial, administrative, and service occupations; and relatively high levels of national and personal income.
  21. Middle-income Countries
    (Sometimes referred to as developing countries) Nations with industrializing economies and moderate levels of national and personal income.
  22. Low-income Countries
    (Sometimes referred to as underdeveloped countries) Nations with little industrialization and low levels of national and personal income.
  23. Industrialization
    The process by which societies are transformed from dependence on agriculture and handmade products to an emphasis on manufacturing and related industries.
  24. Urbanization
    The process by which an increasing proportion of a population lives in cities rather than in rural areas.
  25. Positivism
    A term describing Auguste Comte's belief that the world can best be understood through scientific inquiry.
  26. Social Darwinism
    Herbert Spencer's belief that those species of animals, including human beings, best adapted to their environment to survive and prosper, whereas those poorly adapted die out.
  27. Social Facts
    Emile Durkheim's term for patterned ways of acting, thinking, and feeling that exist outside any one individual but that exert social control over each person.
  28. Anomie
    Emile Durkheim's designation for condition in which social control becomes ineffective as a result of the loss of shared values and of a sense of purpose in society.
  29. Theory
    A set of logically interrelated statements that attempts to describe, explain, and (occasionally) predict social events.
  30. Functionalist Perspectives
    The sociological approach that views society as a stable, orderly system.
  31. Manifest Functions
    Functions that are intended and/or overly recognized by the participants in a social unit.
  32. Latent Functions
    Unintended functions that are hidden and remain unacknowledged by participants.
  33. Conflict Perspectives
    The sociological approach that views groups in society as engaged in a continuous power struggle for control of scarce resources.
  34. Macrolevel Analysis
    An approach that examines whole societies, large-scale social structures, and social systems.
  35. Microlevel Analysis
    Sociological theory and research that focus on small groups rather than on large-scale social structures.
  36. Symbolic Interactionist Perspectives
    The sociological approach that views society as the sum of the interactions of individuals and groups.
  37. Postmodern Perspectives
    The sociological approach that attempts to explain social life in modern societies that are characterized by postindustrialization, consumerism, and global communications.
  38. Jane Adams
    One of the best-known early women sociologists in the United States because she founded Hull House, one of the most famous settlement houses, in an impoverished area of Chicago. Throughout her career, she was actively engaged in sociological endeavors: She lectured at numerous colleges, was a charter member of the American Sociological Society, and published a number of articles and books. She was also awarded a Nobel Prize for her assistance to the underprivileged.
  39. August Comte
    He is considered to be the "founder of sociology." Comte�s philosophy became known as positivism- a belief that he world can best be understood through scientific inquiry. Comte believed objective, bias-free knowledge was attainable only through the use of science.
  40. W.E.B. Du Bois
    One of the first to note the Identity Conflict caused by being both a black and an American. Pointed out that people in the U.S. champion values of democracy, freedom, and equality; at the same time they accept racism and group discrimination.
  41. Emile Durkheim
    Believed the limits of human potential are socially, not biologically based. One of his most important contributions was the idea that societies are built on social facts. Social facts are patterned ways of acting, thinking and feeling that exist outside any one individual but that exert social control over each person.
  42. Harriet Martineau
    Believed society would improve when: Women and men were treated equally, knowledge gained from science is used to reform society, and cooperation existed among all social classes.
  43. Karl Marx
    Viewed history as a clash between conflicting ideas and forces. Believed class conflict produced social change and a better society. His philosophy/theories formed the basis for the Communist Revolution in Russia and China.
  44. George Herbert Mead
    Founded the symbolic interaction perspective. He emphasized the importance of studying the group ("the social") rather than starting with separate individuals. Mead also called our attention to the importance of shared communication among people based on language and gestures. Mead gave us important insights on how we develop our self-concept through interaction with those persons who are the most significant influences in our lives.
  45. Robert Merton
    He distinguished between manifest and latent functions of social institutions. Manifest functions are intended and/or overly recognized by the participants in a social unit. In contrast, latent functions are unintended functions that are hidden and remain unacknowledged by participants. Merton noted that all features of a social system may not be functional at all times; dysfunctions are the undesirable consequences of any element of a society.
  46. C. Wright Mills
    A key figure in the development of contemporary conflict theory, encouraged sociologists to get involved in social reform. He contended that value-free sociology was impossible because social scientists must make value-relatated choices. Mills encouraged everyone to look beneath everyday events in order to observe the major resources and power inequalities that exist in society. He believed that the most important decisions in the United States are made largely behind the scenes by the power elite-a small clique composed of the top corporate, political, and military officials.
  47. Robert E. Parks
    Asserted that urbanization had a disintegrating influence on social life by producing an increase in the crime rate and in racial and class antagonisms that contributed to the segregations and isolation of neighborhoods.
  48. Talcott Parsons
    Stressed that all societies must provide for meeting social needs in order to survive. Parsons believed that other institutions, including school, church, and government, must function to assist the family and that all institutions must work together to preserve the system over time.
  49. Georg Simmel
    Theorized that society is a web of patterned interactions among people. Analyzed how social interactions vary depending on the size of the social group. Developed formal sociology, an approach that focuses on the universal recurring social forms that motivate social interaction.
  50. Herbert Spencer
    Spencer's major contribution to sociology was an evolutionary perspective on social order and social change. Social Darwinism- the belief that those human beings, best adapted to their environment will survive and prosper, whereas those poorly adapted will die out.
  51. Max Weber
    He emphasized that sociology should be value free-research should be conducted in a scientific manner and should exclude the researcher's personal values and economic interests and the necessity of understanding how others see the world. He also provided important insights on the process of rationalization, bureaucracy, religion, and many other topics. Was more aware of women's issues than were many scholars of his day, perhaps because his wife was important figure in women's movement in Germany.
  52. Describe the key steps in conducting qualitative research.
    With qualitative research, interpretive description (words) rather than statistics (numbers) is used to analyze underlying meanings and patterns of social relationships. A researcher taking the qualitative approach might (1) formulate the problem to be studied instead of creating a hypothesis, (2) collect and analyze the data, and (3) report the results.
  53. State the major strengths and weaknesses of secondary analysis of existing data.
    On strength of secondary analysis is that data are readily available and inexpensive. Another is that because the researcher often does not collect the data personally, the chances of bias may be reduced. However, secondary analysis had inherent problems. For one thing, the data may be incomplete, unauthentic, or inaccurate. A second issue is that the various data from which content analysis is done may not be strictly comparable with one another, and coding this data-sorting, categorizing, and organizing them into conceptual categories-may be difficult.
  54. Describe the major ethical concerns in sociological research.
    Because sociology involves the study of people ("human subjects"), researchers are required to obtain the informed consent of the people they study; however, in some instances what constitutes "informed consent" may be difficult to determine.
  55. Describe the research cycle from the deductive and inductive points of view.
    In the deductive approach, the researcher begins with a theory and uses research to test the theory. This approach proceeds as follows: (1) theories generate hypotheses, (2) hypotheses lead to observations (data gathering), (3) observations lead to the formation of generalizations, and (4) generalizations are used to support the theory, to suggest modifications to it, or to refute it. In inductive, the researcher collects information or data (facts or evidence) and then generates theories from the analysis of that data. Under the inductive approach, we would proceed as follows: (1) Specific observations suggest generalizations, (2) generalizations produce a tentative theory, (3) the theory is tested through the formation of hypotheses, and (4) hypotheses may provide suggestions for additional observations.
  56. Describe the six steps in the conventional research process.
    A conventional research process based on deduction and the quantitative approach has these key steps: (1) selecting and defining the research problem; (2) reviewing previous research; (3) formulating the hypothesis, which involves constructing variables; (4) developing the research design; (5) collecting and analyzing the data; and (6) drawing conclusions and reporting the findings.
  57. Explain why validity and reliability are important considerations in sociological research.
    In addition to problems with sampling, sociologists must maintain the validity and reliability of the data they collect. Validity is the extent to which a study or research instrument accurately measures what it is supposed to measure. To maintain validity, some sociologists study the relationship between suicide and religion not only in terms of people's specific behaviors (frequency of attendance at church services) but also as a set of values, beliefs, or attitudes. Reliability is the extent to which a study or research instrument yields consistent results when applied to different individuals at one time or to the same individuals over time. An important issue in reliability is the fact that sociologists have found that the characteristics of interviews and how they ask questions may produce different answers from the people being interviewed. As a result, different studies of college students who have contemplated suicide may arrive at different conclusions. Problems of validity are also linked to how data is analyzed. Analysis is the process through which data are organized so that comparisons can be made and conclusions drawn. Sociologists use many techniques to analyze data.
  58. Explain the concept of triangulation.
    Many sociologists believe that it is best to combine multiple methods in a given study. Triangulation is the term used to describe this approach. Triangulation refers not only to research methods but also to multiple data sources, investigators, and theoretical perspectives in a study. Multiple data sources include persons, situations, contexts, and time. Multiple methods and approaches provide a wider scope of information and enhance our understanding of critical issues. Many researchers also use multiple methods to validate or refine one type of data by use of another type.
  59. Describe the need for systematic research.
    Sociologists obtain their knowledge of human behavior through research, which results in a body of information that helps us move beyond guesswork and common sense in understanding society. The sociological perspective incorporates theory and research to arrive at a more accurate understanding of the "hows" and "whys" of human social interaction. Once we have an informed perspective about social issues, such as who commits suicide and why, we are in a better position to find solutions and make changes. Social research, then, is a key part of sociology.
  60. Differentiate between quantitative and qualitative research and give examples of each.
    Quantitative research focuses on data that can be measured numerically (comparing rates of suicide or surveys). Qualitative research focuses on interpretive descriptions (words) rather than statistics to analyze underlying meanings and patterns of social relationships (interviewing or case studies).
  61. Distinguish between a representative sample and a random sample and explain why sampling is an integral part of quantitative research.
    • In random sampling, every member of an entire population being studied has the same chance of being selected. Researchers frequently select a representative sample (a small group of respondents) from a larger population (the trial group of people) to answer questions about their attitudes, opinions, or behavior.
    • In representative sampling the population is divided into subpopulations (strata) and random samples are taken of each stratum.
    • An important step in quantitative research model is to collect and analyze data. The researcher must decide on which population-persons about whom we want to be able to draw conclusions-will be observed or questioned. Then it is necessary to select a sample of people from a larger population to be studied. It is important that the sample accurately represent the larger population.
  62. Describe the major types of surveys and indicate their major strengths and weaknesses.
    • A survey is a poll in which the researcher gathers facts or attempts to determine the relationships among facts. Describes a population without interviewing each individual. Standardized questions categories. Relies on self-reported information. Survey data are collected by using self-administered questionnaires, face-to-face interviews, and/or telephone interviews. A questionnaire is a printed research instrument containing a series of items to which subjects respond. The questionnaires are typically mailed or delivered to the respondents' homes; however they may also be administered to groups of respondents gathered at the same place at the same time. Self-administered questionnaires have certain strengths. They are relatively simple and inexpensive to administer, they allow for rapid data collection and analysis, and they permit respondents to remain anonymous. A major disadvantage is the low response rate. The response rate is usually somewhat higher if the survey is handed out to a group that is asked to fill it out on the spot.
    • Interviews have specific advantages. They are usually more effective in dealing with complicated issues and provide an opportunity for face-to-face communication between the interviewer and the respondent. An interview is a data-collection encounter in which an interviewer asks the respondent questions and records the answers.
    • A quicker method of administering questionnaires is the telephone survey, which is becoming an increasingly popular way to collect data. Telephone surveys save time and money compared to self-administered questionnaires or face-to-face interviews. Some respondents may be more honest than when they are facing an interviewer. Telephone surveys also give greater control over data collection and provide greater personal safety for respondents and researchers than do personal encounters.
  63. Describe the major methods of field research and indicate when researchers are most likely to utilize each of them.
    • Field research is the study of social life in its natural setting: Observing and interviewing people where they live, work, and play. Researchers use these methods to generate qualitative data: Observations that are best described verbally rather than numerically. Participant observation refers to the process of collecting data while being part of the activities of the group that the researcher is studying. Field research is used to bring people closer to real world conditions and discover particular information that is needed. Like to answer the question "Why do people engage in acts of self damage which may result in death?"Case study, which is often an indepth, multifaceted investigation of a single event, person, or social grouping. The case study is well suited for identifying "black swans" because of its in-depth approach: what appears to be "white" often turns out on closer examination to be "black." They are used to know more about the subjects. Instead of answering "How many homeless are there?" case studies answer "What are they carrying in those [shopping] bags?"Ethnography is a detailed study of the life and activities of a group of people by researchers who may life with that group over a period of years. It is often employed for gathering empirical data on human societies/cultures. Ethnography aims to describe the nature of those who are studied (i.e. to describe a people, an ethnos) through writing.
    • An unstructured interview is an extended, open-ended interaction between an interviewer and an interviewee. Unlike a structured interview they do not offer a limited, pre-set range of answers for a respondent to choose, but instead advocate listening to how each individual person responds to the question. Used to test hypothesises, do an opinion poll, or market research.
  64. Describe the structure of an experiment and distinguish between laboratory and field experiments.
    • An experiment is a carefully designed situation in which the researcher studies the impact of certain variables on subjects' attitudes or behavior. Experiments are designed to create "real-life" situations, ideally under controlled circumstances, in which the influence of different variables can be modified and measured. Conventional experiments require that subjects be divided into two groups: an experimental group and a control group. The experimental group contains the subjects who are exposed to an independent variable to study its effect on them. The control group contains the subjects who are not exposed to the independent variable.
    • In a laboratory experiment, subjects are studied in a closed setting so that researchers can maintain as much control as possible over the research.
    • A field experiment applies the scientific method to experimentally examine an intervention in the real world (or as many experimental economists like to say, naturally-occurring environments) rather than in the laboratory.
  65. Indicate the relationship between dependent and independent variables in a hypothesis.
    Hypothesis- a statement of the relationship between two or more concepts. The most fundamental relationship in a hypothesis is between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables.
  66. Distinguish between sociology and common sense.
    Sociological research provides a factual and objective counterpoint to commonsense knowledge and ill-informed sources of information. It is based on an empirical approach that answers questions through a direct, systematic collection and analysis of data.
  67. Hypothesis
    In research studies, a tentative statement of the relationship between two or more concepts.
  68. Independent Variable
    A variable that is presumed to cause or determine a dependent variable.
  69. Dependent Variable
    A variable that is assumed to depend on or be caused by one or more other (independent) variables.
  70. Random Sampling
    A study approach in which every member of an entire population being studied has the same chance of being selected.
  71. Probability Sampling
    Choosing participants for a study on the basis of specific characteristics, possibly including such factors as age, sex, race/ethnicity, and educational attainment.
  72. Validity
    In sociological research, the extent to which a study or research instrument accurately measures what it is supposed to measure.
  73. Reliability
    In sociological research, the extent to which a study or research instrument yields consistent results when applied to different individuals at one time or to the same individuals over time.
  74. Research Methods
    Specific strategies or techniques for systematically conducting research.
  75. Survey
    A poll in which the researcher gathers facts or attempts to determine the relationships among facts.
  76. Respondents
    Persons who provide data for analysis through interviews or questionnaires.
  77. Questionnaire
    A printed research instrument containing a series of items to which subjects respond.
  78. Interview
    A research method using a data collection encounter in which an interviewer asks the respondent questions and records the answers.
  79. Secondary Analysis
    A research method in which researchers use existing material and analyze data that were originally collected by others.
  80. Content Analysis
    The systematic examination of cultural artifacts or various forms of communication to extract thematic data and draw conclusions about social life.
  81. Participant Observation
    A research method in which researchers collect data while being part of the activities of the group being studied.
  82. Ethnography
    A detailed study of the life and activities of a group of people by researchers who may live with that group over a period of years.
  83. Unstructured Interview
    An extended, open-ended interaction between an interviewer and an interviewee.
  84. Experiment
    A research method involving a carefully designed situation in which the researcher studies the impact of certain variables on subjects' attitudes or behavior.
  85. Experimental Group
    In an experiment, the group that contains the subjects who are exposed to an independent variable (the experimental condition) to study its effect on them.
  86. Control Group
    In an experiment, the group containing the subjects who are not exposed to the independent variable.
  87. Correlation
    A relationship that exists when two variables are associated more frequently than could be expected by chance.
  88. Hawthorne Effect
    A phenomenon in which changes in a subject's behavior are caused by the researcher's presence or by the subject's awareness of being studied.
  89. Field Research
    The study of social life in its natural setting: observing and interviewing people where they live, work, and play.
  90. Define Culture.
    Culture is the knowledge, language, values, and customs passed from one generation to the next in a human group or society. Culture can be either material or nonmaterial. Material culture consists of the physical creations of society. Nonmaterial culture is more abstract and reflects the ideas, values, and beliefs of a society.
  91. List and briefly explain ten core values in U.S. society.
    (1) Individualism. People are responsible for their own success or failure. (2) Achievement and success. Personal achievement results from successful competition with others. (3) Activity and work. People who are industrious are praised for their achievement; those perceived as lazy are ridiculed. (4) Science and technology. People in the United States have a great deal of faith in science and technology. (5) Progress and material comfort. The material comforts of life include not only basic necessities (such as adequate shelter, nutrition, and medical care) but also the goods and services that make life easier and more pleasant. (6) Efficiency and practicality. People want things to be bigger, better, and faster. (7) Equality. Since colonial times, overt class distinctions have been rejected in the United States. However, "equality" has been defined as "equality of opportunity"-an assumed equal chance to achieve success-not as "equality of outcome." (8) Morality and humanitarianism. Aiding others, especially following natural disasters (such as floods or hurricanes), is seen as a value. (9) Freedom and liberty. Individual freedom is highly valued in the United States. (10) Racism and group superiority. People value their own racial or ethnic group above all others.
  92. State the definition of norms and distinguish between folkways, mores, and laws.
    • Norms are established rules of behavior or standards of conduct.
    • Folkways are informal norms or everyday customs that may be violated without serious consequences within a particular culture.
    • Mores are strongly held norms with moral and ethical connotations that may not be violated without serious consequences in a particular culture.
    • Laws are formal, standardized norms that have been enacted by legislatures and are enforced by formal sanctions.
  93. Distinguish between high culture and popular culture and between fads and fashion.
    • High culture consists of classical music, opera, ballet, and other activities usually patronized by elite audiences. Popular culture consists of the activities, products, and services of a culture that appeal primarily to members of the middle and working classes.
    • A fad is a temporary but widely copied activity followed enthusiastically by large numbers of people. Most fads are short-lived novelties.
    • A fashion is a currently valued style of behavior, thinking, or appearance that is longer lasting and more widespread than a fad.
  94. Describe how culture can be both a stabilizing force and a source of conflict in societies.
  95. Describe subcultures and countercultures; give examples of each.
    • Subculture is a group people who share a distinctive set of cultural beliefs and behaviors that differs in some significant way from that of the larger society. Examples are the Old Order Amish and ethnic enclaves in large urban areas.
    • Counterculture is a group that strongly rejects dominant societal values and norms and seeks alternative lifestyles. Examples include the beatniks of the 1950s, the flower children of the 1960s, the drug enthusiasts of the 1970s, and members of nonmainstream religious sects, or cults.
  96. Describe the importance of culture in determining how people think and act on a daily basis.
    Simply stated, culture is essential for our individual survival and for our communication with other people. We rely on culture because we are not born with the information we need to survive. We do not know how to take care of ourselves, how to behave, how to dress, what to eat, which gods to worship, or how to make or spend money. We must learn about culture through interaction, observation, and imitation in order to participate as members of the group.
  97. Use your experiences with food as a symbolic representation of culture.
  98. Describe the importance of language and relate to the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis.
    • Language is a set of symbols that expresses ideas and enables people to think and communicate with one another. Verbal (spoken) language and nonverbal (written or gestured) language help us describe reality. One of our most important human attributes is the ability to use language to share our experiences, feelings, and knowledge with others. Language can create visual images in our head, such as "the kittens look like little cotton balls." Language also allows people to distinguish themselves from outsiders and to maintain group boundaries and solidarity.
    • Whorf suggested that language not only expresses our thoughts and perceptions but also influences our perception of reality. According to the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, language shapes the view of reality of its speakers.
  99. Contrast ideal and real culture and give examples of each.
    According to sociologists, we do not always act in accord with our stated values. Sociologists refer to this contradiction as a gap between ideal culture and real culture. Ideal culture refers to the values and standards of behavior that people in a society profess to hold. Real culture refers to the values and standards of behavior that people may actually follow. For example, we may claim to be law-abiding (ideal cultural value) but smoke marijuana (real cultural behavior, or we may regularly drive over the speed limit but think of ourselves as �good citizens.�
  100. State the definitions for culture shock, ethnocentrism, and cultural relativism, and explain the relationship between these three concepts.
    • Culture shock is the disorientation that people feel when they encounter cultures radically different from their own and believe they cannot depend on their own taken-for-granted assumptions about life.
    • Ethnocentrism is the practice of judging all other cultures by one's own culture.
    • Cultural relativism is the belief that the behaviors and customs of any culture must be viewed and analyzed by the culture's own standards.
  101. Describe the functionalist, conflict, symbolic interactionist, and postmodernist perspectives on culture.
    • A functionalist analysis of culture assumes that a common language and shared values help produce consensus and harmony.
    • According to some conflict theorists, culture may be used by certain groups to maintain their privilege and exclude others from society's benefits.
    • Symbolic interactionists suggest that people create, maintain, and modify culture as they go about their everyday activities.
    • Postmodern thinkers believe that there are many cultures within the United States alone. In order to grasp a better understanding of how popular culture may simulate reality rather than being reality, postmodernists believe that we need a new way of conceptualizing culture and society.
  102. Compare several of the forms that popular culture takes.
    • Three prevalent forms of popular culture are fads, fashions, and leisure activities.
    • A fad is a temporary but widely copied activity followed enthusiastically by large numbers of people. According to John Lofland fads can be divided into four major categories. (1) Object fads are items that people purchase despite the fact that they have little use or intrinsic value. (2) Activity fads include pursuits such as body piercing, "surfing" the Internet, and the "free hugs" campaign. (3) Idea fads, such as New Age ideologies including "The Secret," as advocated by Oprah Winfrey and other celebrities. (4) Personality fads, such as those surrounding celebrities such as Paris Hilton, Tiger Woods, 50 Cent, and Brad Pitt.
    • A fashion is a currently valued style of behavior, thinking, or appearance that is longer lasting and more widespread than a fad.
  103. Distinguish between discovery, invention, and diffusion as means of cultural change.
    • Discovery is the process of learning about something previously unknown or unrecognized. For examples, the discovery of a polio vaccine virtually eliminated one of the major childhood diseases. Invention is the process of reshaping existing cultural items into a new form. Guns, video games, airplanes, and First Amendment rights are examples of inventions that positively or negatively affect our lives today.
    • Diffusion is the transmission of cultural items or social practices from one group or society to another through such means as exploration, military endeavors, the media, tourism, and immigration. To illustrate, pi�atas can be traced back to the twelfth century, when Marco Polo brought them back from China, where they were used to celebrate the springtime harvest, to Italy where they were filled with costly gifts in a game played by nobility. In today's "shrinking globe," cultural diffusion moves at a very rapid pace as countries continually seek new markets for their products.
  104. Explain why the rate of cultural change is uneven.
  105. Culture
    The knowledge, language, values, customs, and material objects that are passed from person to person and from one generation to the next in a human group or society.
  106. Material Culture
    A component of culture that consists of the physical or tangible creations (such as clothing, shelter, and art) that members of a society make, use, and share.
  107. Technology
    The knowledge, techniques, and tools that allow people to transform resources into a usable form and the knowledge and skills required to use what is developed.
  108. Nonmaterial Culture
    A component of culture that consists of the abstract or intangible human creations of society (such as attitudes, beliefs, and values) that influence people's behavior.
  109. Cultural Universals
    Customs and practices that occur across all societies.
  110. Symbol
    Anything that meaningfully represents something else.
  111. Language
    A set of symbols that expresses ideas and enables people to think and communicate with one another.
  112. Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis
    The proposition that language shapes the view of reality of its speakers.
  113. Values
    Collective ideas about what is right or wrong, good or bad, and desirable or undesirable in a particular culture.
  114. Norms
    Established rules of behavior or standards of conduct.
  115. Sanctions
    Rewards for appropriate behavior or penalties for inappropriate behavior.
  116. Folkways
    Informal norms or everyday customs that may be violated without serious consequences within a particular culture.
  117. Mores
    Strongly held norms with moral and ethical connotations that may not be violated without serious consequences in a particular culture.
  118. Taboos
    Mores so strong that their violation is considered to be extremely offensive and even unmentionable.
  119. Laws
    Formal, standardized norms that have been enacted by legislatures and are enforced by formal sanctions.
  120. Cultural Lag
    William Ogburn's term for a gap between the technical development of a society (material culture) and its moral and legal institutions (nonmaterial culture).
  121. Discovery
    The process of learning about something previously unknown or unrecognized.
  122. Invention
    The process of reshaping existing cultural items into a new form.
  123. Diffusion
    The transmission of cultural items or social practices from one group or society to another.
  124. Subculture
    A group of people who share a distinctive set of cultural beliefs and behaviors that differs in some significant way from that of the larger society.
  125. Counterculture
    A group that strongly rejects dominant societal values and norms and seeks alternative lifestyles.
  126. Culture Shock
    The disorientation that people feel when they encounter cultures radically different from their own and believe they cannot depend on their own taken-for-granted assumptions about life.
  127. Ethnocentrism
    The practice of judging all other cultures by one's own culture.
  128. Cultural Relativism
    The belief that the behaviors and customs of any culture must be viewed and analyzed by the cultures own standards.
  129. Popular Culture
    The components of culture that consists of activities, products, and services that are assumed to appeal primarily to members of the middle and working classes.
  130. Cultural Imperialism
    The extensive infusion of one nation's culture into other nations.
  131. Define socialization and explain why this process is essential for the individual and society.
    • Socialization is the lifelong process of social interaction through which individuals acquire a self-identity and the physical, mental, and social skills needed for survival in society.
    • Socialization is essential for the individual's survival and for human development. The many people who met the early material and social needs of each of us were central to our establishing our own identity. The kind of person we become depends greatly on what we learn during our formative years from our surrounding social groups and social environment.
    • Socialization is also essential for the survival and stability of society. Members of society must be socialized to support and maintain the existing social structure.
  132. Explain Freud's views on the conflict between individual desires and the demands of society.
    • The basic assumption in Sigmund Freud's psychoanalytic approach is that human behavior and personality originate from unconscious forces within individuals.
    • According to Freud, human development occurs in three states that reflect different levels of the personality. Children first develop the id (drives and needs), then the ego (restrictions on the id), and then the superego (moral and ethical aspects of personality).
  133. Describe Ericson's stages of psychosocial development.
    • 1. Trust versus mistrust = If infants receive nurturing care from parents develop sense of trust.
    • 2. Autonomy versus shame and doubt = If allowed to explore their environment children grow autonomous. If parents disapprove of or discourage them, children will begin to doubt their abilities.
    • 3. Initiative versus guilt = If parents encourage initiative in this stage children develop sense of initiative but if parents make children feel that their actions are bad or that they are a nuisance children may develop a strong sense of guilt.
    • 4. Industry versus inferiority = Adults who encourage children's efforts produce a feeling of industry in them, but can feel inferior when adults view children's efforts as silly or a nuisance.
    • 5. Identity versus role confusion = Role confusion results when individuals fail to acquire an accurate sense of personal identity.
    • 6. Intimacy versus isolation = If individuals establish successful relationships, intimacy ensues, if they fail to do so they may feel isolated.
    • 7. Generativity versus self-absorption = Generativity means looking beyond oneself and being concerned about the next generation and the future of the world in general. Self-absorbed people may be preoccupied with their own well-being and material gains or be overwhelmed by stagnation, boredom, and interpersonal impoverishment.
    • 8. Integrity versus despair = Integrity results when individuals have resolved previous psychosocial crises and are able to look back at their life as having been meaningful and personally fulfilling. Despair results when previous crises remain unresolved and individuals view their life as a series of disappointments, failures, and misfortunes.
  134. Outline the Piaget's stages of cognitive development.
    • Children go through four stages of cognitive (intellectual) development, going from understanding only through sensory contact to engaging in highly abstract thought.
    • 1. Sensorimotor stage - Children understand the world only through sensory contact and immediate action.
    • 2. Preoperational stage - Children begin to use words as metal symbols and to form mental images.
    • 3. Concrete operational stage - Children think in terms of tangible objects and actual events.
    • 4. Formal operational stage - Adolescents have the potential to engage in highly abstract thought and understand places, things, and events they have never seen.
  135. What are the major agents of socialization and describe their effects on children's development.
    • The agents of socialization include family, schools, peer groups, and the media.
    • Our families, which transmit cultural and social values to us, are the most important agents of socialization in all societies, serving these functions: (1) procreating and socializing children, (2) providing emotional support, and (3) assigning social position.
    • Schools primarily teach knowledge and skills but also have a profound influence on the self-image, beliefs, and values of children.
    • Peer groups contribute to our sense of belonging and self-worth, and are a key source of information about acceptable behavior.
    • The media function as socializing agents by (1) informing us about world events, (2) introducing us to a wide variety of people, and (3) providing an opportunity to live vicariously through other people's experiences.
  136. Describe Mead's concept of the generalized other and explain socialization as an interactive process.
    • Generalized other refers to the child's awareness of the demands and expectations of the society as a whole or of the child's subculture.
    • Cooley's idea of the looking-glass self makes us aware that our perception of how we think others see us is not always correct. Mead extended Cooley's ideas by emphasizing the cognitive skills acquired through role-taking. According to Mead, "Selves can only exist in definite relations to other selves. No hard-and-fast line can be drawn between our own selves and the selves of others."
  137. Describe the major strengths and weaknesses of Erikson's developmental theory.
  138. Compare and contrast the moral development theories of Kohlberg and Gilligan.
    • Kohlberg- People go through 3 stages of moral development from avoidance of unwanted consequences to viewing morality based on human rights.
    • Gilligan- Women go through stages of moral development from personal wants to the greatest good for themselves and others.
    • Gilligan argued that men are socialized to make moral decisions based on justice perspective whereas women are socialized to make decisions on a care and responsibility perspective.
  139. Explain what is meant by gender socialization and racial socialization.
    • Gender socialization is the aspect of socialization that contains specific messages and practices concerning the nature of being female and male in a specific group or society. Influences our beliefs about acceptable behaviors for males and females.
    • Racial socialization- The aspect of socialization that contains specific messages and practices concerning the nature of one's racial or ethnic status as it relates to: personal and group identity, intergroup and interindividual relationships, and position in the social hierarchy.
  140. Describe the process of resocialization and explain why it often takes place in a total institution.
    • Learning a new set of attitudes, values, and behaviors.
    • Resocialization is voluntary when we assume a new status of our own free will.
    • Involuntary resocialization occurs against a person's wishes and generally takes place within a total institution. (Military boot camps, jails, concentration camps, and some mental hospitals are total institutions.)
  141. Distinguish between sociological and sociobiological perspectives on the development of human behavior.
    • According to sociologists, an individual cannot form a sense of self or personal identity without intense social contact with others. The self represents the sum total of perceptions and feelings that an individual has obtained through interactions with others.
    • Sociobiological is the systematic study of how biology affects social behavior.
  142. Outline the stages of the life course and explain how each stage varies based on gender, race/ethnicity, class, and positive or negative treatment.
    • Each time we experience a change in status we learn a new set of rules, roles, and relationships.
    • Before we achieve a new status, we often participate in anticipatory socialization: the process by which knowledge and skills are learned for future roles.
    • __________
  143. Outline the key components of Cooley and Mead's human development theories.
    • Cooley- We base our perception of who we are on how we think people see us and on whether we think this opinion is good or bad. He calls this: The looking glass self- the way in which a person's sense of self is derived from his/her perceptions of others. Our self is not who we actually are or what people actually think about us; rather it is based on our perceptions of what other people think about us. Stage 1: We imagine how we look to others. Stage 2: We imagine how other people judge the appearance that we think we present. If we think the evaluation is favorable our self-concept is enhanced. If we think the evaluation is unfavorable our self-concpet is diminished.
    • Mead- Linked the idea of self-concept to role-taking. Role Taking: the process by which a person mentally assumes the role of another person or group in order to understand the world from that person's or group�s point of view. The self is divided into "I" and "Me": "I": the subjective element of the self; it is the spontaneous and unique traits of each person. "Me": the objective element of self; it is composed of the demands of others and the individual's awareness of those demands. "I" develops first. "Me" is formed during three stages of self development. Significant Others: those persons whose care, affection, and approval are especially desired and are most important in the development of self. Three stages of Self-Development: 1. Preparatory Stage (up to age 3) Children prepare for role-taking by imitating the people around them. 2. Play Stage (3 - 5) Children begin to see themselves in relation to others; learn to use language and other symbols; pretend to take the roles of specific people. 3. Game Stage (early school years) Children understand their social position and the positions of those around them. Children become concerned about the demands and expectations of others.(This is called: generalized other)
  144. Explain why cases of isolated children are important to understanding the socialization process.
    A look at the lives of two children who suffered such emotional abuse provides important insights into the importance of a positive socialization process and the negative effects of social isolation.
  145. Explain Cooley and Mead�s contribution to our understanding of the socialization process.
  146. Socialization
    The lifelong process of social interaction through which individuals acquire a self-identity and the physical, metal, and social skills needed for survival in society.
  147. Sociobiology
    The systematic study of how biology affects social behavior.
  148. Id
    Sigmund Freud's term for the component of personality that includes all of the individual�s basic biological drives and needs that demand immediate gratification.
  149. Ego
    According to Sigmund Freud, the rational, reality-oriented component of personality that imposes restrictions on the innate pleasure-seeking drives of the id.
  150. Superego
    Sigmund Freud's term for the conscience, consisting of the moral and ethical aspects of personality.
  151. Self-concept
    The totality of our beliefs and feelings about ourselves.
  152. Looking-glass Self
    Charles Horton Cooley's term for the way in which a person's sense of self is derived from the perceptions of others.
  153. Role-taking
    The process by which a person mentally assumes the role of another person in order to understand the world from that person's point of view.
  154. Significant Others
    Those persons whose care, affection, and approval are especially desired and who are most important in the development of the self.
  155. Generalized Other
    George Herbert Mead's term for the child�s awareness of the demands and expectations of the society as a whole or of the child's subculture.
  156. Agents of Socialization
    The persons, groups, or institutions that teach us what we need to know in order to participate in society.
  157. Peer Group
    A group of people who are linked by common interests, equal social position, and (usually) similar age.
  158. Gender Socialization
    The aspect of socialization that contains specific messages and practices concerning the nature of being female or male in a specific group or society.
  159. Racial Socialization
    The aspect of socialization that contains specific messages and practices concerning the nature of one�s racial or ethnic status.
  160. Anticipatory Socialization
    The process by which knowledge and skills are learned for future roles.
  161. Social Devaluation
    A situation in which a person or group is considered to have less social value than other persons or groups.
  162. Resocialization
    The process of learning a new and different set of attitudes, values, and behaviors from those in one�s background and previous experience.
  163. Total Institution
    Erving Goffman's term for a place where people are isolated from the rest of society for a set period of time and come under the control of the officials who run the institution.
  164. Define social structure; explain why it is important for individuals and society.
    Social structure is the framework of societal institutions (economy, politics, and religion) and social practices (rules and social roles) that make up a society and organize and limit people�s behavior. This structure is essential for the survival of society and for the well-being of individuals because it provides a social web of familial support and social relationships that connects each of us to the larger society.
  165. Define status and distinguish between ascribed and achieved statuses.
    • A socially defined position in society characterized by certain expectations, rights, and duties.
    • Ascribed Status - A social position conferred at birth or received involuntarily later in life based on attributes over which the individual has little or no control, such as race/ethnicity, age, and gender.
    • Achieved Status - A social position that a person assumes voluntarily as a result of personal choice, merit, or direct effort.
  166. Define role expectation, role performance, role conflict, and role strain, and give an example of each.
    • Role Conflict - A situation in which incompatible role demands are placed on a person by two or more statuses held at the same time.
    • Role Strain - A condition that occurs when incompatible demands are built into a single status that a person occupies.
    • Role Expectation - A group's or society's definition of the way that a specific role ought to be played.
  167. Identify and describe the five major types of societies.
    • Three of these are referred to as preindustrial societies = hunting and gathering (they use simple technology for hunting animals and gathering vegetation, until about 10,000 years ago main society), horticultural and pastoral (Between 13,000 and 7,000BCE was shift from collecting food to producing food - 3 factors: depletion of the supply of large game animals as source of food, increase in size of the human population, dramatic weather and environmental changes that occurred by the end of the Ice Age), and agrarian societies (use the technology of large-scale farming, including animal-drawn or energy-powered plows and equipment, to produce their food supply.). Farming made it possible for people to spend their entire lives in the same location.
    • The other two are industrial and postindustrial societies. Industrial societies are characterized by mechanized production of goods. Postindustrial societies are based on technology that supports an information-based economy in which providing services is based on knowledge more than on the production of goods.
  168. Describe Goffman's dramaturgical analysis; explain what he meant by presentation of self.
    Dramaturgical analysis is the study of social interaction that compares everyday life to a theatrical presentation. Impression management (presentation of self) refers to people's efforts to present themselves to others in ways that are most favorable to their own interests or image.
  169. Explain what is meant by the sociology of emotions; describe sociologist Arlie Hochschild�s contribution to this area of study.
    Arlie Hochschild suggests that we acquire a set of feeling rules that shapes the appropriate emotions for a given role or specific situation. These rules include how, where, when, and with whom an emotion should be expressed. Like a funeral.
  170. Explain what is meant by master status and give three examples.
    A master status is the most important status a person occupies. It dominates the individual's other statuses. It is the overriding ingredient in determining a person's general social position. Master statuses are vital to how we view ourselves, how we are seen by others, and how we interact with others. Examples - Being poor or rich, Occupation, race/ethnicity, or daughter/wife/mother.
  171. Define formal organization and explain why many contemporary organizations are known as "people-processing" organizations.
    A formal organization is a highly structured group formed for the purpose of completing certain tasks or achieving specific goals.
  172. Define nonverbal communication and personal space; explain how these concepts relate to our interactions with others.
    • Nonverbal communication is the transfer of information between persons without the use of words. (Facial expressions, head movements, eye contact, body positions, touching, and personal space). Supplements verbal communication, regulates social interaction, and establishes the relationship among people in terms of their power over one another.
    • A formal organization is a highly structured group formed for the purpose of completing certain tasks or achieving specific goals.
  173. Describe the process of role exiting.
    Role exit occurs when people disengage from social roles that have been central to their self-identity. Ebaugh says four stages: Doubt (frustration or burnout), search for alternatives, turning point, and creation of new identity.
  174. Explain the difference in primary and secondary groups.
    • Primary groups are family, close friends, school or work-related peer groups.
    • Secondary groups are schools, churches, corporations
  175. Define for social institution; name the major institutions found in contemporary society.
    A social institution is a set of beliefs and rules that establishes how a society will meet its basic social needs. Five basic social institutions: Family, Religion, Education, Economy, and Government or politics.
  176. Compare Emile Durkheim's typology of mechanical and organic solidarity with Ferdinand Tonnies' Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft.
    • Social solidarity is based on social structure which is based on division of labor.
    • Mechanical solidarity - people are untied by traditions and shared values.
    • Organic solidarity - people are united by mutual dependence on one another.
    • A Gemeinschaft society would be made up of the various family trees and how they are related to one another.
    • A Gesellschaft society would be made up of clump of trees, each has a specialized relationship and may not be committed to the others.
  177. Describe the social construction of reality according to the theories of Symbolic Interactionism.
    The process by which our perception of reality is largely shaped by the subjective meaning that we give to an experience. This meaning strongly influences what we "see" and how we respond to situations.
  178. What are the functionalist and conflict perspectives on the nature and purpose of social institutions.
    • According to functionalist theorists, social institutions perform several prerequisites of all societies: replace members; teach new members; produce, distribute, and consume goods and services; preserve order; and provide and maintain a sense of purpose.
    • Conflict theorists suggest that social institutions do not work for the common good of all individuals. Institutions may enhance and uphold the power of some groups but exclude others, such as the homeless.
  179. Describe ethnomethodology; list its strengths and weaknesses.
    • Ethnomethodology is the study of the common sense knowledge that people use to understand the situations in which they find themselves.
    • Break "rules"
    • Does not examine the impact of macrolevel social institutions
    • Fail to look at how social realities are created.
    • Make aware of sub conscious social realities in our daily lives.
  180. Social Interaction
    The process by which people act toward or respond to other people; the foundation for all relationships and groups in society.
  181. Social Structure
    The complex framework of societal institutions (such as the economy, politics, and religion) and the social practices (such as rules and social roles) that make up a society and that organize and establish limits on people's behavior.
  182. Status
    A socially defined position in a group or society characterized by certain expectations, rights, and duties.
  183. Ascribed Status
    A social position conferred at birth or received involuntarily later in life based on attributes over which the individual has little or no control, such as race/ethnicity, age, and gender.
  184. Achieved Status
    A social position that a person assumes voluntarily as a result of personal choice, merit, or direct effort.
  185. Master Status
    The most important status that a person occupies.
  186. Status Symbol
    A material sign that informs others of a person's specific status.
  187. Role
    A set of behavioral expectations associated with a given status.
  188. Role Expectation
    A group's or society's definition of the way that a specific role ought to be played.
  189. Role Performance
    How a person actually plays a role.
  190. Role Conflict
    A situation in which incompatible role demands are placed on a person by two or more statuses held at the same time.
  191. Role Strain
    A condition that occurs when incompatible demands are built into a single status that a person occupies.
  192. Role Exit
    A situation in which people disengage from social roles that have been central to their self-identity.
  193. Social Group
    A group that consists of two or more people who interact frequently and share a common indentity and a feeling of interdependence.
  194. Primary Group
    Charles Horton Cooley�s term for a small, less specialized group in which members engage in face-to-face, emotion-based interactions over an extended period of time.
  195. Secondary Group
    A larger, more specialized group in which members engage in more-impersonal, goal-oriented relationships for a limited period of time.
  196. Formal Organization
    A highly structured group formed for the purpose of completing certain tasks or achieving specific goals.
  197. Social Institution
    A set of organized beliefs and rules that establishes how a society will attempt to meet its basic social needs.
  198. Hunting and Gathering Societies
    Societies that use simple technology for hunting animals and gathering vegetation.
  199. Pastoral Societies
    Societies based on technology that supports the domestication of large animals to provide food, typically emerging in mountainous regions and areas with low amounts of annual rainfall.
  200. Horticultural Societies
    Societies based on technology that supports the cultivation of plants to provide food.
  201. Agrarian Societies
    Societies that use the technology of large-scale farming, including animal-drawn or energy-powered plows and equipment, to produce their food supply.
  202. Industrial Societies
    Societies based on technology that mechanized production.
  203. Postindustrial Societies
    Societies in which technology supports a service- and information-based economy.
  204. Mechanical Solidarity
    Emile Durkheim's term for the social cohesion of preindustrial societies, in which there is minimal division of labor and people feel united by shared values and common social bonds.
  205. Organic Solidarity
    Emile Durkheim's term for the social cohesion found in industrial societies, in which people perform very specialized tasks and feel united by their mutual dependence.
  206. Gemeinschaft (guh-MINE-shoft)
    A traditional society in which social relationships are based on personal bonds of friendship and kinship and on intergenerational stability.
  207. Gesellschaft (guh-ZELL-shoft)
    A large, urban society in which social bonds are based on impersonal and specialized relationships, with little long-term commitment to the group or consensus on values.
  208. Social Construction of Reality
    The process by which our perception of reality is shaped largely by the subjective meaning that we give to an experience.
  209. Self-Fulfilling Prophecy
    The situation in which a false belief or prediction produces behavior that makes the originally false belief come true.
  210. Ethnomethodology
    The study of the commonsense knowledge that people use to understand the situations in which they find themselves.
  211. Dramaturgical Analysis
    The study of social interaction that compares everyday life to a theatrical presentation.
  212. Impression Management (Presentation of Self)
    Erving Goffman's terms for people�s efforts to present themselves to others in ways that are most favorable to their own interests or image.
  213. Nonverbal Communication
    The transfer of information between persons without the use of words.
  214. Personal Space
    The immediate area surrounding a person that the person claims as private.
  215. Define: ingroup, outgroup, and reference group; describe the significance of these concepts in everyday life.
    • Ingroup - A group to which a person belongs and with which the person feels a sense of identity.
    • Outgroup - A group to which a person does not belong and toward which the person may feel a sense of competitiveness or hostility.
    • Distinguishing between our ingroups and our outgroups helps us establish our individual identity and self-worth. Likewise, groups are solidified by ingroup and outgroup distinctions; the presence of an enemy or hostile group binds members more closely together.
    • Reference Group - A group that strongly influences a person�s behavior and social attitudes, regardless of whether that individual is an actual member.
    • Reference groups help explain why our behavior and attitudes sometimes differ from those of our membership groups.
  216. Summarize Max Weber's perspective on rationality; outline his ideal characteristics of bureaucracy.
    • According to Weber, rationality is the process y which traditional methods of social organization, characterized by informality and spontaneity, are gradually replaced by efficiently administered formal rules and procedures.
    • Division of Labor - Bureaucratic organizations are characterized by specialization, and each member has highly specialized tasks to fulfill.
    • Hierarchy of Authority - In a bureaucracy, each lower office is under the control and supervision of a higher one.
    • Rules and Regulations - Rules and regulations establish authority within an organizations. Standardized and provided in written format.
    • Qualification-Based Employment - Bureaucracies require competence and hire staff members and professional employees based on specific qualifications.
    • Impersonality - Bureaucracies require that everyone must play by the same rules and be treated the same. Personal feelings should not interfere with organizational decisions.
  217. Define the iron law of obligarchy.
    According to Robert Michels, the tendency of bureaucracies to be ruled by a few people.
  218. Describe the informal structure in bureaucracies; list its positive and negative aspects.
    • Informal structure includes the daily activities and interactions that bypass the official rules and procedures.
    • The informal structure may enhance productivity or may be counterproductive to the organization.
  219. Distinguish between aggregates, categories, and groups from a sociological perspective.
    • Aggregates are a collection of people that happen to be in the same place at the same time but share little in common (airline passengers, shoppers, or waiting at a traffic light)
    • Categories are a collection of people who have never met one another but share a similar characteristic (students, elderly, or Native American)
    • Social Groups are a collection of two or more people who: interact frequently, share a sense of belonging, and have a feeling of interdependence.
  220. Distinguish between the two functions of leadership and the three major styles of group leadership.
    • Instrumental leadership is most appropriate when the group's purpose is to complete a task or reach a particular goal.
    • Expressive leadership is most appropriate when the group is dealing with emotional issues, an harmony, solidarity, and high morale are needed.
    • Authoritarian leaders - make all major group decisions and assigns tasks to members, effective in times of crisis or war, and often criticized for being dictatorial.
    • Democratic leaders - encourage group discussion and decision-making through consensus building, praised for being expressive and supportive, and criticized for being indecisive.
    • Laissez-Faire leaders - Do not provide active leadership, minimally involved in decision making, and encourages group members to make their own decisions.
  221. Compare normative, coercive, and utilitarian organizations; describe the nature of membership in each.
    • Normative are organizations we join voluntarily to pursue a common interest or gain prestige. (political organizations or religious institutions)
    • Coercive are associations people are forced to join. (boot camps and prisons)
    • Utilitarian are organizations we join voluntarily when they can provide us with a material reward.
  222. Describe dyads and triads; explain the phenomena of changes in interaction patterns.
    • Dyad is a group composed of two members.
    • Triad is a group composed of three members.
  223. Explain what is meant by groupthink and elaborate on reasons why it can be dangerous for organizations.
    Group think is the process by which members of a cohesive group arrive at a decision that many individual members privately believe is unwise.
  224. Describe the ways that online social networks enhance communication.
  225. Distinguish between primary and secondary groups; explain how peoples' relationships differ in each.
    • Primary groups are a small group whose members engage in face to face, emotion-based interaction over extended period.
    • Secondary groups are a large specialized group in which the impersonal, goal-oriented relationships for a limited time.
  226. Contrast functionalist and conflict perspectives on the purposes of groups.
    • According to functionalists, people form groups to meet instrumental and expressive needs. Instrumental or task-oriented needs cannot always be met by one person, so the group works cooperatively to fulfill a specific goal.
    • Conflict theorists suggest that groups also involve a series of power relationships whereby the needs of the individual members may not be equally served.
  227. Explain the relationship between bureaucratic hierarchies and oligarchies.
    • Law of Obligarchy
    • Michels found that they go hand in hand. On the one hand, power may be concentrated in the hands of a hand, power may be concentrated in the hands of a few people because rank-and-file members must inevitably delegate a certain amount of decision-making authority to their leaders.
    • On the other hand, obligarchy may result when individuals have certain outstanding qualities that make it possible for them to manage, if not control, others.
  228. Explain the contributions of Solomon Asch and Stanley Milgram to our understanding of group conformity and obedience of authority.
    • Asch - the dramatic way in which it calls our attention to the power that groups have to produce a certain type of conformity. Compliance is the extent to which people say (or do) things so that they may gain the approval of other people.
    • Milgram - Obedience is a form of compliance in which people follow direct orders from someone in a position of authority. The study provides evidence that obedience to authority may be more common than most of us would like to believe.
  229. Discuss the major shortcomings of bureaucracies and their effects on workers, clients or customers, and levels of productivity.
    • Inefficiency and rigidity - Goal displacement and bureaucratic personality.
    • Resistance to change - Once bureaucratic organizations are created, they tend to resist change. Makes them impossible to eliminate but contributes to enlargement. - Incompetence
    • Perpetuation of race, class, and gender inequalities - People who lack opportunities for integration and advancement tend to be pessimistic and to have lower self-esteem.
  230. Describe and evaluate U.S. and Japanese models of organization.
    • Long-term employment and company loyalty - Applies to Japan not U.S.
    • Quality circles - Small work groups made up of about fifteen workers who meet regularly with one or two managers to discuss the group�s performance and working conditions.
    • Cultural traditions in Japan place greater emphasis on the importance of the group rather than the individual, and workers in the United States are not likely to embrace this idea because it directly conflicts with the values of individualism and personal achievement so strongly held by many in this country.
  231. Aggregate
    A collection of people who happen to be in the same place at the same time but share little else in common.
  232. Category
    A number of people who may never have met one another but share a similar characteristic, such as education level, age, race, or gender.
  233. Ingroup
    A group to which a person belongs and with which the person feels a sense of identity.
  234. Outgroup
    A group to which a person does not belong and toward which the person may feel a sense of competitiveness or hostility.
  235. Reference Group
    A group that strongly influences a person�s behavior and social attitudes, regardless of whether that individual is an actual member.
  236. Network
    A web of social relationships that links one person with other people and, through them, with other people they know.
  237. Small Group
    A collectivity small enough for all members to be acquainted with one another and to interact simultaneously.
  238. Dyad
    A group composed of two members.
  239. Triad
    A group composed of three members.
  240. Instrumental Leadership
    Goal- or task- oriented leadership.
  241. Expressive Leadership
    An approach to leadership that provides emotional support for members.
  242. Authoritarian Leaders
    People who make all major group decisions and assign tasks to members.
  243. Democratic Leaders
    Leaders who encourage group discussion and decision making through consensus building.
  244. Laissez-Faire Leaders
    Leaders who are only minimally involved in decision making and who encourage group members to make their own decisions.
  245. Conformity
    The process of maintain or changing behavior to comply with the norms established by society, subculture, or other group.
  246. Groupthink
    The process by which members of a cohesive group arrive at a decision that many individual members privately believe is unwise.
  247. Bureaucracy
    An organizational model characterized by a hierarchy of authority, a clear division of labor, explicit rules and procedures, and impersonality in personal matters.
  248. Rationality
    The process by which traditional methods of social organization, characterized by informality and spontaneity, are gradually replaced by efficiently administrated formal rules and procedures.
  249. Ideal Type
    An abstract model that describes the recurring characteristics of some phenomenon (such as bureaucracy).
  250. Informal Side of Bureaucracy
    Those aspects of participants' day-to-day activities and interactions that ignore, bypass, or do not correspond with the official rules and procedures of the bureaucracy.
  251. Goal Displacement
    A process that occurs in organizations when the rules become an end in themselves rather than a means to an end, and organizational survival becomes more important than achievement of goals.
  252. Bureaucratic Personality
    A psychological construct that describes those workers who are more concerned with following correct procedures than they are with getting the job done correctly.
  253. Iron Law of Oligarchy
    According to Robert Michels, the tendency of bureaucracies to be ruled by a few people.
  254. Explain the nature of deviance and describe its most common forms.
    • Any behavior, belief, or condition that violates social norms in the society or the group in which it occurs:
    • 1) drinking too much
    • 2) robbing a bank
    • 3) laughing at a funeral
    • An act becomes deviant when it is socially defined as deviant.
    • Definitions vary widely depending on the place, the time, the group.
    • Deviant behavior ranges from mild transgressions of folkways, to serious infringements of mores, to violations of the law.
  255. Describe the types of behavior included in conventional crimes.
    • Includes:
    • 1) Violent crime - actions involving force or the threat of force, including murder, rape, robbery, and aggravated assault.
    • 2) Property crimes - robbery, burglary, larceny, motor vehicle theft, and arson.
    • "Morals" crimes - prostitution, illegal gambling, use of illegal drugs, and illegal pornography.
  256. Define the criminal justice system.
    • 1) Refers to more than 55,000 local, state, and federal agencies that enforce laws, adjudicate crimes, and treat and rehabilitate criminals.
    • 2) Includes police, courts, corrections facilities, and employs more than 2 million people in 17,000 police agencies, nearly 17,000 courts, more than 8,000 prosecutorial agencies, about 6,000 correctional institutions, and more than 3,500 probation and parole departments.
  257. Describe the underground economy and the ways it enables criminal networks.
  258. Discuss the concept of global crime, including the major types of global crime.
    • The networking of powerful criminal organizations and their associates in shared activities around the world - is a relatively new phenomenon.
    • It is an extremely lucrative endeavor as criminal organizations have increasingly set up their operations on a transnational basis, using the latest communication and transportation technologies.
    • The highest income-producing activities global criminal organizations include trafficking in drugs, weapons, and nuclear material; smuggling of things and people (including many migrants); trafficking in women and children for sex industry; and trafficking in body parts such as corneas and major organs for the medical industry.
  259. Discuss the functions of deviance from a functionalist perspective and outline the principal features of strain, opportunity, and control theories.
    • According to functionalists, a certain amount of deviance contributes to the smooth functioning of society.
    • Strain theory focuses on the idea that when people are denied legitimate access to cultural goals, such as a good job or a nice home, they engage in illegal behavior to obtain them.
    • Opportunity theory suggests that for deviance to occur, people must have access to illegitimate means to acquire what they want but cannot obtain through legitimate means.
  260. Discuss conflict perspectives on deviance.
    Conflict perspective on deviance focus on inequalities in society. Marxist conflict theorists link deviance and crime to the capitalist society, which divides people in to haves and have-nots, leaving crime as the only source of support for those at the bottom of the economic ladder.
  261. Identify and distinguish the three varieties of feminist approaches to deviance and crime.
    • Feminist approaches to deviance focus on the relationship between gender and deviance.
    • Liberal feminist approach - women's deviance and crime are a rational response to gender discrimination that women experience in families and the workplace. From this view, lower-income and minority women typically have fewer opportunities not only for education and good jobs but also for "high-end" criminal endeavors.
    • Radical feminist approach views the cause of women's crime as originating in patriarchy (male domination over females). This approach focuses on social forces that shape women's lives and experiences and shows how exploitation may trigger deviant behavior and criminal activites.
    • Marxist (socialist) feminist approach - is based on the assumption that women are exploited by both capitalism and patriarchy. From this approach, women�s criminal behavior is linked to gender conflict created by the economic and social struggles that often take place in postindustrial societies such as ours.
  262. Distinguish between legal and sociological classifications of crime.
    • Law - Crimes are divided into felonies and misdemeanors. A felony is a serious crime such as rape, homicide, or aggravated assault, for which punishment ranges from more than a year's imprisonment to death. A misdemeanor is a minor crime that is typically punished by less than one year in jail.
    • Sociologists - Categorize crimes based on how they are committed and how society views the offenses:
    • 1. Conventional (street) crime
    • 2. Occupational (white-collar) and corporate crime
    • 3. Organized crime
    • 4. Political crime
  263. Differentiate between occupational and corporate crime and explain "criminals."
    • Occupational (white-collar) crime - illegal activities committed by people in their occupation or financial affairs.
    • Corporate crime - illegal acts committed by corporate employees on behalf of the corporation and with its support. = Examples: antitrust violations; tax evasion; misrepresentations in advertising; infringements on patents, copyrights, and trademarks; price fixing; and financial fraud.
  264. Describe organized crime and political crime and explain how each may weaken social control in a society.
    • Organized - A business operation that supplies illegal goods and services for profit. Premeditated, continuous illegal activities that include drug trafficking, prostitution, loan-sharking, money laundering, and large-scale theft such as truck hijackings. Thrives because there is great demand for illegal goods and services.
    • Political - Illegal or unethical acts involving usurpation of power by government officials. Illegal/ unethical acts perpetrated against the government by outsiders seeking to make a political statement, or undermine or overthrow the government.
    • Corporate crimes are often more costly in terms of money and lives lost than street crimes. Other costs in clued the effect on the moral climate of society - confidence of everyday people in the nation�s economy had been shaken badly by the greedy and illegal behavior of corporate insiders.
  265. Describe the key components of differential association theory, differential reinforcement theory, social control theory, rational choice theory, and labeling theory.
    • Differential association theory - Individuals have a greater tendency to deviate from societal norms when they frequently associate with persons who promote or condone deviance. Criminal activity is more likely to occur when a person has frequent, intense, and long-lasting interactions with others who violate the law. Family and peer groups play a significant role in teaching/promoting criminal behavior.
    • Differential reinforcement theory - Both deviant and conventional behaviors are learned through the same social processes. Pressure to conform to the values and beliefs of significant others plays a prominent role in the adoption of both deviant and conventional behaviors
  266. Explain how police, courts, and prisons practice considerable discretion in deal with offenders.
  267. State the four functions of punishment and explain how disparate treatment of the poor, all people of color, and white women is evident in the U.S. prison system.
  268. Explain why official crime statistics may not be an accurate reflection of actual crime.
  269. Deviance
    Any behavior, belief, or condition that violates significant cultural norms in the society or group in which it occurs.
  270. Crime
    Behavior that violates criminal law and its punishable with fines, jail terms, and other sanctions.
  271. Juvenile Delinquency
    A violation of law or the commission of status offense by young people.
  272. Social Control
    Systematic practices developed by social groups to encourage conformity to norms, rules, and laws and to discourage deviance.
  273. Criminology
    The systematic study of crime and the criminal justice system, including the police, courts, and prisons.
  274. Strain Theory
    The proposition that people feel strain when they are exposed to cultural goals that they are unable to obtain because they do not have access to culturally approved means of achieving those goals.
  275. Illegitimate Opportunity Structures
    Circumstances that provide an opportunity for people to acquire through illegitimate activities what they cannot achieve through legitimate channels.
  276. Differential Association Theory
    The proposition that individuals have a greater tendency to deviate from societal norms when they frequently associate with persons who are more favorable toward deviance than conformity.
  277. Rational Choice Theory of Deviance
    The belief that deviant behavior occurs when a person weighs the costs and benefits of nonconventional or criminal behavior and determines that the benefits will outweigh the risks involved is such actions.
  278. Social Bond Theory
    The proposition that the probability of deviant behavior increases when a person�s ties to society are weakened or broken.
  279. Labeling Theory
    The proposition that deviants are those people who have been successfully labeled as such by others.
  280. Primary Deviance
    The initial act of rule-breaking.
  281. Secondary Deviance
    The process that occurs when a person who has been labeled a deviant accepts that new identity and continues the deviant behavior.
  282. Tertiary Deviance
    Deviance that occurs when a person who has been labeled a deviant seeks to normalized the behavior by relabeling it as nondeviant.
  283. Violent Crime
    Actions - murder, forcible rape, robbery, and aggravated assault - involving force or the threat of force against others.
  284. Property Crime
    Crimes including burglary (breaking into private property to commit a serious crime), motor vehicle theft, larceny-theft (theft of property worth $50 or more), and arson.
  285. Victimless Crimes
    Crimes that involve a willing exchange of illegal goods or services among adults.
  286. Occupational (White-Collar) Crime
    Illegal activities committed by people in the course of their employment or financial affairs.
  287. Corporate Crime
    Illegal acts committed by corporate employees on behalf of the corporation and with its support.
  288. Organized Crime
    A business operation that supplies illegal goods and services for profit.
  289. Political Crime
    Illegal or unethical acts involving the usurpation of power by government officials, or illegal/unethical acts perpetrated against the government by outsiders seeking to make a political statement, undermine the government, or overthrow it.
  290. Terrorism
    The calculated unlawful use of physical force or threats of violence against a persons or property in order to intimidate or coerce a government, organization, or individual for the purpose of gaining some political, religious, economic, or social objective.
  291. Punishment
    Any action designed to deprive a person of things of value (including liberty) because of some offense the person is thought to have committed.
  292. Define income and wealth and describe their relation to social class.
    • Income is the economic gain derived from wages, salaries, income transfers (governmental aid), and ownership of property.
    • Wealth is the value of all of a person's or family's economic assets, including income, personal property, and income-producing property.
    • Those with higher income and wealth are higher in social class.
  293. Describe Marx�s perspective on class position and class relationships.
    • States that capitalist societies consist of two classes - capitalist (bourgeoisie) class and working class (proletariat).
    • Class relationships involve inequality and exploitation. Workers exploited by capitalists to maximize profits. Continual exploitation results in workers' alienation.
  294. Describe current statistics about the poor in the U.S.
    Young, female, white(2/3) and native Americans, no high school diploma
  295. Compare Socioeconomic statistics and social class.
    • Socioeconomic statistics (SES) is A combined measure that, in order to determine class location, attempts to classify individuals, families, or households in terms of factors such as income, occupation, and education.
    • S
  296. Describe the ways that income is distributed in the U.S.
    • Income refers to money, wages, and payments that periodically are received as returns for an occupation or investment.
    • And is very unevenly distributed in the US and varies from face and class.
    • 20 wealthiest-50 of income
    • 20 poorest-4 of income
  297. Compare functionalist and conflict approaches to measuring class.
    • Functionalist perspectives view classes as broad groupings of people who share similar levels of privilege on the basis of their roles in the occupational structure. According to the Davis-Moore thesis, stratification exists in all societies, and some inequality is not only inevitable but also necessary for the ongoing functioning of society. The positions that are most important within society and that require the most talent and training must be highly rewarded.
    • Conflict perspectives on class are based on the assumption that social stratification is created and maintained by one group (typically the capitalist class) in order to enhance and protect its own economic interests. Conflict theories measure class according to people�s relationships with others in the production process.
  298. Distinguish between absolute and relative poverty and describe the characteristics and lifestyle of those who live in the U.S.
    • Absolute Poverty exists when people do not have the means to secure the most basic necessities of life.
    • Relative Poverty exists when people may be able to afford basic necessities but are still unable to maintain an average standard of living.
    • Young, female, white(2/3) and native americans
  299. Describe the contributions of the Symbolic Interactionist perspective to understanding social inequality.
    The beliefs and actions of people reflect their class location in society.
  300. Outline Weber�s multidimensional approach to social stratification and explain how people are ranked on all three dimensions.
    In his analysis of these dimensions �wealth, prestige, and power- of "class" as an ideal type (that can be used to compare and contrast various societies) rather than as a specific social category of "real" people.
  301. Discuss slavery and its relationship to global poverty.
    • Slavery is an extreme form of stratification in which some people are owned by others.
    • They have little to no control over their lives.Five societies have had them-ancient Greece, the roman empire, the united states, the Caribbean, and brazil.
    • Four primary characteristics in us it was for life + inherited, were considered property not human beings, denied rights, and coercion was used to keep them in their place.
  302. Distinguish between functionalist and conflict explanations of social inequality.
    • F-Some degree of social inequality is necessary for the smooth functioning of society (in order to fill the most important functions) and thus is inevitable.
    • C-Powerful individuals and groups use ideology to maintain their favored positions in society at the expense of others, and wealth is not necessary in order to motivate people.
  303. Summarize the most important consequences of inequality in the U.S.
    • The stratification of society into different social groups results in wide discrepancies in income and wealth and in variable access to available goods and services. People with high income or wealth have greater opportunity to control their own lives. People with less income have fewer life chances and must spend their limited resources to acquire basic necessities.
    • Physical health, mental health, nutrition, housing, education, and crime and lack of safety.
  304. Describe the ways that SES has shaped the life choices of members of your own family.
  305. Discuss the distribution of income and wealth in the U.S. and describe how this distribution affects life chances.
    • Very unequal.
    • Lower is diminished access to quality health care, nutrition, housing, unequal educational opportunities, and crime and lack of safety.
  306. Social Stratification
    The hierarchical arrangement of large social groups based on their control over basic resources.
  307. Life Chances
    Max Weber's term for the extent to which individuals have access to important societal resources such as food, clothing, shelter, education, and health care.
  308. Social Mobility
    The movement of individuals or groups from one level in a stratification system to another.
  309. Intergenerational Mobility
    The social movement (upward or downward) experienced by family members from one generation to the next.
  310. Intragenerational Mobility
    The social movement (upward or downward) individuals within their own lifetime.
  311. Slavery
    An extreme form of stratification in which some people are owned by others.
  312. Caste System
    A system of social inequality in which people's status is permanently determined at birth based on their parents' ascribed characteristics.
  313. Class System
    A type of stratification based on the ownership and control of resources and on the type of work that people do.
  314. Capitalist Class (or Bourgeoisie)
    Karl Marx's term for the class that consists of those who own and control the means of production.
  315. Working Class (or Proletariat)
    Those who must sell their labor to the owners in order to earn enough money to survive.
  316. Alienation
    A feeling of powerlessness and estrangement from other people and from oneself.
  317. Class Conflict
    Karl Marx's term for the struggle between the capitalist class and the working class.
  318. Wealth
    The value of all of a person�s or family's economic assets, including income, personal property, and income-producing property.
  319. Prestige
    The respect or regard with which a person or status position is regarded by others.
  320. Power
    According to Max Weber, the ability of people or groups to achieve their goals despite opposition from others.
  321. Socioeconomic Status (SES)
    A combined measure that, in order to determine class location, attempts to classify individuals, families, or households in terms of factors such as income, occupation, and education.
  322. Pink-Collar Occupation
    Relatively low-paying, non-manual, semiskilled positions primarily held by women, such as day-care workers, checkout clerks, cashiers, and waitpersons.
  323. Income
    The economic gain derived from wages, salaries, income transfers (governmental aid), and ownership of property.
  324. Absolute Poverty
    A level of economic deprivation that exists when people do not have the means to secure the most basic necessities of life.
  325. Relative Poverty
    A condition that exists when people may be able to afford basic necessities but are still unable to maintain an average standard of living.
  326. Feminization of Poverty
    The trend in which women are disproportionately represented among individuals living in poverty.
  327. Job Deskilling
    A reduction in the proficiency needed to perform a specific job that leads to a corresponding reduction in the wages for that job.
  328. Meritocracy
    A hierarchy in which all positions are rewarded based on people's ability and credentials.
  329. Define and describe global stratification.
    • Refers to the unequal distribution of wealth, power, and prestige on a global basis, resulting in people having vastly different lifestyles and lfie chances both within and among the nations of the world.
    • High-, Middle-, Low-income countries
  330. Define and describe the "three words" approach used to classify nations of the world.
    • First World Nations were said to consist of the rich, industrialized nations that primarily had capitalist economic systems and democratic political systems. (US, Canada, Japan, Great Britain, Australia, and New Zealand.
    • Second World nations were said to be countries with at least a moderate level of economic development and a moderate standard of living. (China, North Korea, Vietnam, Cuba)
    • Third World - the poorest countries, with little or no industrialization and the lowest standards of living, shortest life expectancies, and highest rates of mortality.
  331. Explain the levels of development approach used for describing global stratification.
    • Developed Nations
    • Developing Nations
    • Less-Developed Nations
    • Underdeveloped Nations (Harry S Truman)in the Southern Hemisphere because of their low gross national product, which today is referred to as gross national income (GNI) - all the goods and services produced in a country in a given year, plus the net income earned outside the country by individuals or corporations. Low standard of living.
  332. Explain how poverty is defined on a global basis.
    According to social scientists, defining poverty involves more than comparisons of personal or household income: It also involves social judgments made by researchers.
  333. Distinguish among absolute, relative, and subjective poverty.
    • Absolute poverty - People do not have the means to secure the most basic necessities of life.
    • Relative poverty - Although people may afford the basic necessities, they are unable to maintain an average standard of living.
    • Subjective Poverty - People who do not have as much income as they believe and expect that they should have.
  334. Describe the future prospects of global inequality.
    • In the future, continued populations growth, urbanization, environmental degradation, and violent conflict threaten even the meager living conditions of those residing in low-income nations. The quality of life will diminish as natural resources are depleted, the environment is polluted, and high rates of immigration and global political unrest threaten the high standard of living that many people have previously enjoyed.
    • With modern technology and world-wide economic growth, it might be possible to reduce absolute poverty and to increase people's opportunities.
  335. Identify and explain the use of the Gini coefficient.
    The World Bank uses as its measure of income inequality what is known as the Gini coefficient, which ranges from zero (meaning that everyone has the same income) to 100 (one person receives all the income).
  336. Explain the new international division of labor theory.
    The new international division of labor theory is based on the assumption that commodity production is split into fragments that can be assigned to whichever part of the world can provide the most profitable combination of capital and labor. This division of labor has changed the pattern of geographic specialization between countries, whereby high-income countries for labor. The low-income countries provide transnational corporations with a situation in which they can pay lower wages and taxes, an face fewer regulations regarding workplace conditions and environmental protection.
  337. Describe some of the important ways that international aid has helped fight global poverty and disease.
  338. Classify and describe nations of the world by the three economic categories.
    • Low-Income Economies - About half the world's population. Primarily agrarian nations with little industrialization and low levels of national and personal income. Most affected are women and children.
    • Middle-Income Economies - About one-third of the world's population. Nations with industrializing economies and moderate levels of national and personal income.
    • High-Income Economies - Are found in fifty-six nations. Nations with highly industrialized economies and relatively high levels of national and personal income. Dominate world economy
  339. Compare and contrast the four major theories of global inequality.
    • Development and Modernization Theory is a perspective that links global inequality to different levels of economic development and suggests that low-income economies can move to middle- and high-income economies by achieving self-sustained economic growth.
    • Dependency Theory states that global poverty can at least partially be attributed to the fact that the low-income countries have been exploited by the high-income countries.
    • World Systems Theory suggests that what exists under capitalism is a truly global system that is held together by economic ties. From this approach, global inequality does not emerge solely as a result of the exploitation of one country by another. Instead, economic domination involves a complex world system in which the industrialized, high-income nations benefit from other nations and exploit their citizens. The economy is a global system divided into three major types of nations = core, semiperipheral, peripheral.
    • The New International Division of Labor Theory is based on the assumption that commodity production is split into fragments that can be assigned to whichever part of the world can provide the most profitable combination of capital and labor.
  340. Discuss global poverty and its effects upon human development.
    • Life expectancy is an estimate of the average lifetime of people born in a specific year.
    • Health is a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being; not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.
    • Education and literacy - Education is usually measured in terms of school enrollment and levels of achievement. Literacy is defined in terms of a "literate person": one who can, with understanding, both read and write a short, simple statement about his or her everyday life.
  341. Describe the contributions of the World Health Organization in addressing problems associated with global stratification.
    Organizations such as the United Nations and the World Health Organization stepped up their efforts to provide family planning services to the populations so that they could control their own fertility.
  342. Social Exclusion
    Manuel Castells's term for the process by which certain individuals and groups are systematically barred from access to positions that would enable them to have an autonomous livelihood in keeping with the social standards and values of a given social context.
  343. Modernization Theory
    A perspective that links global inequality to different levels of economic development and suggests that low-income economies can move to middle- and high-income economies by achieving self-sustained economic growth.
  344. Dependency Theory
    The belief that global poverty can at least partially be attributed to the fact that the low-income countries have been exploited by the high-income countries.
  345. Core Nations
    According to world systems theory, dominant capitalist centers characterized by high levels of industrialization and urbanization.
  346. Semiperipheral Nations
    According to world systems theory, nations that are more developed than peripheral but less developed than core nations.
  347. Peripheral Nations
    According to world systems theory, nations that are dependent on core nations for capital, have little or no industrialization (other than what may be brought in by core nations), and have uneven patterns of urbanization.
  348. Define prejudice and stereotypes and outline the major theories of prejudice.
    • Prejudice is a negative attitude based on faulty generalizations about members of selected racial and ethnic groups.
    • According to the frustration-aggression hypothesis of prejudice, people frustrated in their efforts to achieve a highly desired goal may respond with aggression toward others, who then become scapegoats.
    • Another theory of prejudice focuses on the authoritarian personality, marked by excessive conformity, submissiveness to authority, intolerance, insecurity, superstition, and rigid thinking.
    • Stereotypes are overgeneralizations about the appearance, behavior, or other characteristics of members of particular categories.
  349. Distinguish between assimilation and ethnic pluralism.
    • Assimilation is a process by which members of subordinate racial and ethnic groups become absorbed into the dominate culture.
    • Ethnic Pluralism is the coexistence of a variety of distinct racial and ethnic groups within one society.
  350. Define race and ethnic group and explain their social significance.
    • Race is a category of people who have been singled out as inferior or superior, often on the basis of physical characteristics such as skin color, hair texture, and eye shape.
    • Ethnic Group is a collection of people distinguished, by others or by themselves, primarily on the basis of cultural or nationality characteristics.
    • Race and ethnicity take on great social significance because how people act in regard to these terms drastically affects other people�s lives, including what opportunities they have, how they are treated, and even how long they live.
  351. Describe symbolic interactionist perspectives on racial and ethnic relations.
    • Symbolic interactionists examine how microlevel contacts between people may produce either greater racial tolerance or increased levels of hostility.
    • Symbolic interactionist perspectives make us aware of the importance of intergroup contact and the fact that it may either intensify or reduce racial and ethnic stereotyping and prejudice.
  352. Explain how the experiences of Native Americans have been different from those of other racial and ethnic groups in the United States.
  353. Describe how the African American experience in the United States has been unique when compared with other groups.
  354. Compare and contrast the experiences of racial and ethnic subordinate groups in the United States.
    • Native Americans suffered greatly from the actions of European settlers, who seized their lands and made them victims of forced migration and genocide. Today, they lead lives characterized by poverty and lack of opportunity. White Anglo-Saxon Protestants are the most privileged group in the United States, although social class and gender affect their life chances.
    • White ethnic Americans, whose ancestors migrated from Southern and Eastern European countries, have gradually made their way into the mainstream of U.S. society. Following the abolishment of slavery through the Emancipation Proclamation in 1863, African Americans were still subjected to segregation, discrimination, and lynchings. More recently, despite civil rights legislation and economic and political gains by many African Americans, racial prejudice and discrimination still exist.
    • Asian American immigrants as a group have enjoyed considerable upward mobility in U.S. society in recent decades, but many Asian Americans still struggle to survive by working at low-paying jobs and living in urban ethnic enclaves.
    • Although some Latinos/as have made substantial political, economic, and professional gains in U.S. society, as a group they still are subjected to anti-immigration sentiments.
    • Middle Eastern immigrants to the United States speak a variety of languages and have diverse religious backgrounds. Because they generally come from middle-class backgrounds, they have made inroads into mainstream U.S. society.
  355. Explain the sociological usage of dominant group and subordinate group terminology.
    • A dominant group is an advantaged group that has superior resources and rights in society.
    • A subordinate group is a disadvantaged group whose members are subjected to unequal treatment by the majority group.
    • Use of the term dominate and subordinate reflects the importance of power in relationships.
  356. Describe Robert Merton�s typology of the relationship between prejudice and discrimination and be able to give examples of each.
    • Robert Merton identified four combinations of attitudes and responses. Unprejudiced nondiscriminators are not personally prejudiced and do not discriminate against others. Ex = two friends of different races
    • Unprejudiced discriminators may have no personal prejudice but still engage in discriminatory behavior because of peer group pressure or economic, political, or social interests. Ex = fans only accept a certain percent of people of color on the team.
    • Prejudiced nondiscriminators hold personal prejudices but do not discriminate due to peer pressure, legal demands, or a desire for profits. Ex = coach with prejudiced beliefs hires an African American player to enhance team�s ability to win.
    • Prejudiced discriminators hold personal prejudices and actively discriminate against others. Ex = umpire personally prejudiced against AA�s calls a play incorrectly based on his prejudice.
  357. Discuss discrimination and distinguish between individual and institutional discrimination.
    • Individual discrimination involves actions by individual members of the dominant group that harm members of subordinate groups of their property.
    • Institutional discriminations involves day-to-day practices of organizations and institutions that have a harmful impact on members of subordinate groups.
  358. Explain the key assumptions of conflict perspectives on racial and ethnic relations and note the group(s) to which each applies.
    • Conflict theorists focus on economic stratification and access to power in their analyses of race and ethnic relations. Some emphasize the caste-like nature of raical stratification, others analyze class-based discrimination, and still others examine internal colonialism and gendered racism.
    • The caste perspective
    • Class perspectives
    • Internal colonialism
    • The split-labor-market theory
  359. Trace the ingroup relationships of racial and ethnic groups in the United States.
    • Native Americans suffered greatly from the actions of European settlers, who seized their lands and made them victims of forced migration and genocide. Today, they lead lives characterized by poverty and lack of opportunity. White Anglo-Saxon Protestants are the most privileged group in the United States, although social class and gender affect their life chances.
    • White ethnic Americans, whose ancestors migrated from Southern and Eastern European countries, have gradually made their way into the mainstream of U.S. society. Following the abolishment of slavery through the Emancipation Proclamation in 1863, African Americans were still subjected to segregation, discrimination, and lynchings. More recently, despite civil rights legislation and economic and political gains by many African Americans, racial prejudice and discrimination still exist.
    • Asian American immigrants as a group have enjoyed considerable upward mobility in U.S. society in recent decades, but many Asian Americans still struggle to survive by working at low-paying jobs and living in urban ethnic enclaves.
    • Although some Latinos/as have made substantial political, economic, and professional gains in U.S. society, as a group they still are subjected to anti-immigration sentiments.
    • Middle Eastern immigrants to the United States speak a variety of languages and have diverse religious backgrounds. Because they generally come from middle-class backgrounds, they have made inroads into mainstream U.S. society.
  360. Explain why both assimilation and ethnic pluralism are functionalist perspectives on racial and ethnic relations.
    Assimilation is functional because it contributes to the stability of society by minimizing group differences that might otherwise result in hostility and violence.
  361. Describe the ways that language can be used to perpetuate racial and ethnic stereotypes.
  362. Discuss racial and ethnic struggles from a global perspective.
    • Throughout the world, many racial and ethnic groups seek self-determination � the right to choose their own way of life. As many nations are currently structured, however, self-determination is impossible.
    • The cost of self-determination is the loss of life and property in ethnic warfare.
  363. Race
    A category of people who have been singled out as inferior or superior, often on the basis of physical characteristics such as skin color, hair texture, and eye shape.
  364. Ethnic Group
    A collection of people distinguished, by others or by themselves, primarily on the basis of cultural or nationality characteristics.
  365. Dominant Group
    A group that is advantaged and has superior resources and rights in a society.
  366. Subordinate Group
    A group whose members, because of physical or cultural characteristics, are disadvantaged and subjected to unequal treatment by the dominant group and who regard themselves as objects of collective discrimination.
  367. Prejudice
    A negative attitude based on faulty generalizations about members of selected racial and ethnic groups.
  368. Stereotypes
    Overgeneralizations about the appearance, behavior, or other characteristics of members of particular categories.
  369. Racism
    A set of attitudes, beliefs, and practices that is used to justify the superior treatment of one racial or ethnic group and the inferior treatment of another racial or ethnic group.
  370. Scapegoat
    A person or group that is incapable of offering resistance to the hostility or aggression of others.
  371. Authoritarian Personality
    A personality type characterized by excessive conformity, submissiveness to authority, intolerance, insecurity, a high level of superstition, and rigid, stereotypic thinking.
  372. Social Distance
    The extent to which people are willing to interact and establish relationships with members of racial and ethnic groups other than their own.
  373. Discrimination
    Actions or practices of dominant-group members (or their representatives) that have a harmful effect on members of a subordinate group.
  374. Genocide
    The deliberate, systematic killing of an entire people or nation.
  375. Individual Discrimination
    Behavior consisting of one-on-one acts by members of the dominant group that harm members of the subordinate group or their property.
  376. Institutional Discrimination
    The day-to-day practices of organizations and institutions that have a harmful impact on members of subordinate groups.
  377. Assimilation
    A process by which members of subordinate racial and ethnic groups become absorbed into the dominate culture.
  378. Ethnic Pluralism
    The coexistence of a variety of distinct racial and ethnic groups within one society.
  379. Segregation
    The spatial and social separation of categories of people by race, ethnicity, class, gender, and/or religion.
  380. Internal Colonialism
    According to conflict theorists, a practice that occurs when members of a racial or ethnic group are conquered or colonized and forcibly placed under the economic and political control of the dominant group.
  381. Split Labor Market
    • A term used to describe the division of the economy into two areas of employment, a primary sector or upper tier, composed of higher-paid (usually dominant-group) workers in more-secure jobs, and a secondary sector or lower tier, composed of low-paid (often subordinate-group) workers in jobs with little security and hazardous working conditions.
    • Define personal space.
    • The immediate area surrounding a person that the person claims as private.
  382. What is dramaturgical analysis?
    The study of social interaction that compares everyday life to a theatrical presentation.
  383. Nonverbal communication is influenced by 4 factors. List them.
    Gender, race, social class, and the personal contexts in which they occur.
  384. What is Gesellschaft?
    A large, urban society in which social bonds are based on impersonal and specialized relationships, with little long-term commitment to the group or consensus on values.
  385. What is a typology?
  386. What is social stratification?
    The hierarchical arrangement of large social groups based on their control over basic resources.
  387. What are life chances?
    Max Weber�s term for the extent to which individuals have access to important societal resources such as food, clothing, shelter, education, and health care.
  388. What is SES? Define the term.
    • Socioeconomic Status
    • A combined measure that, in order to determine class location, attempts to classify individuals, families, or households in terms of factors such as income, occupation, and education.
  389. Give an example of intragenerational mobility.
    Sarah begins career as a high-tech factory worker and through increased experience and taking specialized courses in her field became an entrepreneur, starting her own highly successful �dot.com� business. Upward intragenerational social mobility.
  390. According to Weber, what is power?
    According to Max Weber, the ability of people or groups to achieve their goals despite opposition from others.
  391. What are peripheral nations?
    According to world systems theory, nations that are dependent on core nations for capital, have little or no industrialization (other than what may be brought in by core nations), and have uneven patterns of urbanization.
  392. What is social exclusion?
    Manuel Castells�s term for the process by which certain individuals and groups are systematically barred from access to positions that would enable them to have an autonomous livelihood in keeping with the social standards and values of a given social context.
  393. Define tertiary deviance.
    Deviance that occurs when a person who has been labeled a deviant seeks to normalized the behavior by relabeling it as nondeviant.
  394. What is juvenile delinquency?
    A violation of law or the commission of status offense by young people.
  395. What is political crime?
    Illegal or unethical acts involving the usurpation of power by government officials, or illegal/unethical acts perpetrated against the government by outsiders seeking to make a political statement, undermine the government, or overthrow it.
  396. What is a democratic leader?
    Leaders who encourage group discussion and decision making through consensus building.
  397. What is a bureaucratic personality?
    A psychological construct that describes those workers who are more concerned with following correct procedures than they are with getting the job done correctly.
  398. What is a normative organization?
    An organization people join to pursue goals they consider worthwhile.
  399. According to Sumner, what is an ingroup?
    A group to which a person belongs and with which the person feels a sense of identity.
  400. What are the four major contemporary sociological perspectives?
    Functionalist, Conflict, symbolic Interactionist, and Postmodernist.
  401. Name 4 sociologists that developed their sociological theories before 1900?
    Harriet Martineau, Karl Marx, Herbert Spencer, and Emile Durkeim.
  402. The theory and research cycle consists of two different approaches, name them.
  403. Describe multiple causation.
    That is, an event occurs as a result of many factors operating in combination.
  404. Define random sampling.
    A study approach in which every member of an entire population being studied has the same chance of being selected.
  405. What is the Hawthorne effect?
    A phenomenon in which changes in a subject's behavior are caused by the researcher's presence or by the subject's awareness of being studied.
  406. What are the four nonmaterial components of culture that are common in all cultures?
    Appearance, activities, social institutions, and customary practices.
  407. What is ethnocentrism?
    The practice of judging all other cultures by one's own culture.
  408. What is high culture?
    Consists of classical music, opera, ballet, live theater, and other activities usually patronized by elite audiences, composed primarily of member so the upper-middle and upper classes, who have the time, money, an knowledge assumed to be necessary for its appreciation.
  409. List the three main types of norms.
    Folkways, mores, and laws.
  410. What are the four major types of research methods?
    Survey Research, Analysis of Existing Data, Field Research, and Experiments.
  411. What are the primary agents of socialization?
    • The persons, groups, or institutions that each us what we need to know in order to participate in society.
    • Family**, Peer group, school, and mass media.
  412. When does socialization end?
  413. What is a total institution?
    Erving Goffman�s term for a place where people are isolated from the rest of society for a set period of time and come under the control of the officials who run the institution.
  414. What are sanctions?
    Rewards for appropriate behavior or penalties for inappropriate behavior.
  415. What are cultural universals?
    Customs and practices that occur across all societies.
  416. Define Dependent variable.
    A variable that is assumed to depend on or be caused by one or more other (independent) variables.
  417. Define independent variable.
    A variable that is presumed to cause or determine a dependent variable.
  418. Define Macroanalysis.
    An approach that examines whole societies, large-scale social structures, and social systems.
  419. Define micro analysis.
    Sociological theory and research that focus on small groups rather than on large-scale social structures.
  420. Define ethnic group.
    A collection of people distinguished, by others or by themselves, primarily on the basis of cultural or nationality characteristics.
  421. Define racism.
    A set of attitudes, beliefs, and practices that is used to justify the superior treatment of one racial or ethnic group and the inferior treatment of another racial or ethnic group.
  422. What is a subordinate group?
    A group whose members, because of physical or cultural characteristics, are disadvantaged and subjected to unequal treatment by the dominant group and who regard themselves as objects of collective discrimination.
  423. What is a scapegoat?
    A person or group that is incapable of offering resistance to the hostility or aggression of others.
  424. What is individual discrimination?
    Behavior consisting of one-on-one acts by members of the dominant group that harm members of the subordinate group or their property.
  425. What is ethnic pluralism?
    The coexistence of a variety of distinct racial and ethnic groups within one society.
  426. Describe the split-labor-market theory.
    A term used to describe the division of the economy into two areas of employment, a primary sector or upper tier, composed of higher-paid (usually dominant-group) workers in more-secure jobs, and a secondary sector or lower tier, composed of low-paid (often subordinate-group) workers in jobs with little security and hazardous working conditions.
  427. What are WASPS?
  428. Bureaucracies have many strengths and many problems. List three problems that were discussed in the text.

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