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Bandage like retaining bands of connective tissue fround primarily around the elbow, knees, ankles and wrists, keeps tendons and tendon sheaths in place.
What is Retinacula?
Also known as red muscle, these fibers are fatigue resistant. They react and contract slowly, able to produce ATP quickly to avoid fatigue. Seen in long distance runners legs.
What is Slow-Twitch?
Also known as White Muscle, possess the largest diameters, contain few myoglobin, mitochondria, capillaries which make it appear white. Contract Rapidly and Fatigue Faster, muscles in arms
What is Fast-Twitch?
Also known as pink muscle, contain large amounts of myoglobin, mitochondria and capillaries. More fatigue resisstant then white muscle and generate more quickly than red muscle. Sprinters and Boxers.
What is Intermediate?
Also referred to as the gaster (Gasta) The wide central portion makes up the bulk of the muscle produces movement of the joint by the shortening of its fleshy mass durring contraction.
What is the Belly of a muscle?
The tendinous attachment of the muscle on the less movable bone or attachment during contraction usually located on the medial or proximal end of the skeleton.
What is the Origin?
Usually located lateral or distal, is the muscle attachment on the more movable bone or attachment during contraction.
What is the Insertion?
Physiological response where by each individual muscle fiber, when sufficently stimulated, contracts to its fullest extent or not at all. Within the muscle fibers of motor units, no partial contraction takes place.
What is the All-Or-None Response?
The Process of motor unit activation based on need. If more strength is required, additional motor units are then stimulated and the muscle contraction is stronger.
What is Recruitment?
Theory of muscle contraction in which thin filaments sliding toward the Sacromeres center shorten the muscle fiber. Muscle contraction has occured, taking just a few thousandsth of a second.
What is the Sliding Filament Theory?
Type of Isotonic contraction occurs when contraction results in shortening of the muscle. Example is the lifting phase of a biceps curl. Muscles involved are called accelerators or spurt muscles.
What are Concentric Contractions?
Known as lengthening contractions, occur when muscles experience resistance as it is lengthening. The muscles are also known as decelerators or Shunt Muscles.
What are Eccentric Contractions?
Composed of myosin and actin filaments, are present in segments along myofibrils, they are bundled together and lie in parallel rows in a honeycomb arrangement, stack end to end in a continous chain or repeating compartments.
What are Sarcomeres?
In this Contraction, the muscle length remains the same white the muscletension increases, do work by tightening to resist a force, but they donot produce movements.
What are Isometric Contractions?
Also known as dynamic contractions, the tone or tension within a muscle remains the same as the length of the muscle changes. Shortening contraction called concentric and lengthening contractions are call eccentric.
What are Isotonic Contractions?
The junction between the motor neuron and the motor end plate.. The space occupying the junction is called a synapse.
What is the Neuromuscular Junction?
Special type of neuron is responsible for sending the impulse to the muscle cell. Repsonsible for carrying messages of contraction.
What is a Motor Neuron?
a Single muscle is composed of many of these which is the combination of a single motor neuron and muscle fibers which it attaches to.
What is a Motor Unit?
Motor neurons connect to folded sections of the sarcolemma
What is the Motor End Plate?
an organization of deep fascia forms a cord, anchoring the ends of muscle to bone.
What are Tendons?
When Tendons cross multiple joints they are wrapped in these tubular structures resemble little sleeves lined with a synovial membrane.
What are Tendon Sheaths?
A broad flat cord that attaches skeletal muscle to bone, another muscle, or skin.
What is Aponeurosis?
Thin membranous rows seen as longitudinal sections in skeletal muscle. Located at the ends of the sacromere.
What is the A-band?
The central region of the sarcomere, myosin only
What is the H-band?
The dark red area on either side contains both actin myosin (actin and myosin overlapping)
What is the I-band?
The absence of the myosin filament at either end of the sarcomere / actin only.
What is the Z-line?
Also know as ACH, is the principle neurotrasmitter involved in muscle contraction, crosses they synaptic cleft to the sarcolemma, it binds with receptor sites on the motor end plate.
What is Acetycholine?
Also known as ATP , a compound which is produced by the body's cells which is needed for contraction, the energy for contraction.
What is Adenosine Triphosphate?
One of the proprioceptors stimulated during a stretch located in the musculotendinous junction, they detect tension applied to the tendon during a slow, static stretch.
What are Golgi Tendon Organs?
Refers to the skeletal muscles and related fascia in the muscular system.
What is Myofascial?
Another name for muscle cells, threadlike, slender shape also known as muscle fibers.
What are Muscle Spindles?
Groups of muscle fibers bound together by tougher connective tissue envelope called Perimysium.
What is Fasciuli?
The connection between the myosin heads and the actin filaments.
What is the Cross Bridge Effect?
the stage of muscle contraction when the cross-bridge myosin heads, which are hinged at their base, toggles similar to a light switch. This action causes the actin filaments to slide past myosin filaments.
What is a Power Stroke?
characterized by a narrow gap or cleft, across which neurotransmitters or chemical messengers such as acetycholine, diffuse.
What is a Synapse?
A red respiratory pigment similar to hemoglobin in red blood cells, oxygen is stored in cells by binding to these large protein molecules
What is Myoglobin?
What is the connective tissues coverings of muscle cells and muscles.?
- Endomysium (wraps around muscle fibers) >
- Perimysium (wraps around Fasciculi) >
- Epimysium (wraps around entire muscle) >
- Deep Fascia (wraps around muscle groups)
What are the three energy sources for contraction?
- 1. Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)
- 2. Oxygen
- 3. Glucose
What are the ( 4 ) Physiologies of the Muscular System?
- 1. External Mobility - create visible movement. This movement includes both motion and loccomotion.
- 2. Internal Mobility-movement resulting from contraction of smooth muscles or motility.
- 3. Heat Production - all muscle contractions produce heat and release heat.
- 4. Posture Maintenance - to maintain static positions like seating or standing, muscles contract to hold position.
What are the ( 3 ) Anatomical parts of the Muscular System?
- 1. Skeletal Muscles - Muscle Fibers, Cells and Organs
- 2. Related Fascia - Myofascial
- 3. Tendons - Cord-like structure anchoring the end of a muscle to a bone.
What are the ( 3 ) types of Articulations and muscle crossings?
- 1. Uniarticular - Muscles that cross one articulation (joint)
- 2. Biarticular - Muscles that cross two articulations (joints) acting on both.
- 3. Multiarticular - Muscles that cross more than one or more that two articulations (joints).
What are the ( 4 ) muscle Fiber Arrangements
1. _________ Fibers run in parallel arrangement have greater range to motion but are less powerful.
2. _________ these muscles converge at one or both end when the converge at one end, shape is called fusiform or spindle shaped.
3. _________ Muscle that form a circular arrangment
4. _________ Muscles are short and are arranged with central tendon and muscle fibers extending tendon diagonally.
- 1. Parellel
- 2. Convergent
- 3. Circular
- 4. Pennate
The (4) muscle cell properties that give them the ability to move
1. ________ ability to respond to a stimulus
2. ________ ability of muscle fibers to shorten
3. ________ ability of muscle fibers to lengthen
4. ________ ability of muscle fibers to return to their original shape after movement
- 1. Excitability
- 2. Contractibility
- 3. Extensibility
- 4. Elasticity
What are the ( 4 ) protein molecules that make up Myofilaments?
- 1. Myosin (thick myofiliments)
- 2. Actin (thin myofiliments) protein
- 3. Tropomyosin (thin myofiliments) protein
- 4. Troponin (thin myofiliments) protein
What is the progression from Microscopic to Macroscopic of the muscle?
- 1. Myofiliments > 2. Myofibril > 3. Muscle Fiber (Cell) > 4. Fascicle > Muscle
- 1. very fine longitudinal fibers
- 2. very fine longitudinal fibers, contains myofiliments
- 3. also know as muscle cells because of their threadlike, slender shape
- 4. Groups of muscle fibers
What is the ( 4 ) ways muscles coordinate movement and what can they become?
- 1. Agonist - (prime mover) muscle causing specific action
- 2. Antagonist - muscle opposing the agonist.
- 3. Synergist - muscle aiding by causing same movement as agonist
- 4. Fixators - muscle acting as Joint Stabilizer so agonist can exert its action
What are the ( 4 ) parts of Muscle cells?
- 1. Sarcolemma (cell membrane)
- 2. Sarcoplasm (cytoplasm)
- 3. Sarcoplasmic Reticulum
- 4. Organelles
What is the Mechanism of Contraction?
- 1. Excitation of Sarcolemma - contraction begins with nerve impulse arriving via a motor neuron. ACH is released into Neuromuscular juntion (SynapticTransmisson)
- 2. Propogation of Impulse - impulse travels by T-Tubles of Sarcolemma to Sarcoplasmic Reticulum (SR)
- 3.Contractions (CA-IONS) - Calcium released by SR into Myofibril. The presence of Ca-Ions cause Troponin to change shape configurations
- moving Tropomyosin off Active Binding Sites. Facilitates the cross bridging of Myosin head to Actin binding sites. Myosin heads
- toggle from their cocked position causing Sacomer to shortens Active myofiliments slide past Myosin Filaments bring Z-lines closer together.
1. Muscle cells are referrred to as muscle ____________.
2.A connective tissue (CT) later called the ________________ covers the muscle fibers.
3. Each muscle fiber contains __________ , very fine longitudinal fibers, consisting of thick & thin myofiliments.
4. Groups of fasciculi compose a ________________ which is bound by a course sheet of CT called __________
5. Actin and Myosin have a ____________ attraction to each other.
- 1. Fibers
- 2. Endomysium
- 3. Myofibrils
- 4. Muscle or muscle organ | Epimysium
- 5. Chemical
1. Binding sites located on the activ myofilaments are covered by long ____________ molecules, blocking entry when a muscle is at rest.
2. Tropomyosin is held in place by __________ spaced at intervals along actin filaments.
3. They wait for ________ ions to move them off, which exposes the binding sites.
4. _________ are present in segments along myofibrils.
5. Defining the ends of the sacromere are __________.
- 1. Tropomyosin
- 2. Troponin
- 3. Calcium
- 4. Sarcomere
- 5. Z-lines
1. The central region of a resting sarcomere is devoid of actin filaments giving it a lighter color, know as the _________
2. Each myofribil consists of many ___________ arranged end-to-end in a long chain.
3. The dark red area on either side of the H-band contains boths __________ and __________ and is know as the _______.
4. The absence of myosin filaments at either end of the sarcomere is know as ________
5. Upon contraction the actin filaments slide over the myosin filaments causing a narrowing of the _______ and _______.
- 1. I-band
- 2. Sacromeres
- 3. Actin / myosin / A-band
- 4. I-band
- 5. H-bands / I-bands
1. H-bands contain ________ filaments only at the center of the sarcomere.
2. A-bands contain ________ and _________ filaments overlapping.
3. I-bands contain only __________ filaments.
4. Z-line represent the ___________ of the sarcomere.
5. The principle neurotrasmitter involved in muscle contraction is ______________
- 1. Myosin
- 2. Actin / Myosin
- 3. Actin
- 4. Ends
- 5. Acetylcholine (ACH)
1. There are thousands of _________ __________ in a single muscle.
2. The reuptake of CA-Ions into the _________ causes the _________ to slide back onto binding sites of the _______ filaments.
3. This action releases the _________ heads and returns them to their precontraction state. The muscle is at ______.
4. The energy needed for muscle contraction comes from compound called ______ _________, which is produced by body's cells.
5. ATP concentration in muscle cells is very small, sustaining aprox. _____ to ____ seconds of muscle activity.
- 1. Motor Units
- 2. Sarcoplasm / Troponin / Actin
- 3. Myosin / Rest
- 4. Asenosine Triphosphate
- 5. 10 to 15
1. Skeletal muscle contraction requires two additional essential ingredients, ______ and ______.
2. Oxygen is stored in muscle cells by binding to a large protein molecule called __________.
3. Glucose is store as ___________ predominately in the liver and _________ cells.
4.The two ways in which glucose may be utilized by the body: ___________ glycolysis requires oxygen __________ glycolysis does not require oxygen
5. Anaerobic glycolysis does not contribute large amounts of energy and _______ _______ is formed as a by-product.
- 1. Glucose / Oxygen
- 2. Myoglobin
- 3. Glycogen / muscle
- 4. Aerobic / Anaerobic
- 5. Latic Acid
1. The __________ __________ represents the amount of O2 necessary for the liver to process latic acid produced during exercise.
2. The __________ or ________ attachment represents the attachment site on the less movable bone.
3. The __________ or ________ attachment represents the attachment site on the more movable bone.
4. The roles of muscle can be reversed. This property is called _______ ________ .
5. The relationship between muscle fibers and its tendons determines the ________ ________ ________ .
- 1. Oxygen Debt
- 2. Origin or tendinous
- 3. Insertion or muscle
- 4. Functional Reversibililty.
- 5. Muscle Fiber Arrangments
1. ____________ is flexibility beyond a joint's normal range of motion and contributes to joint _________.
2. Factors that influence how much a muscle can be stretched are _________ , ________ , and ________.
3.___________ are sensory receptors located in muscles, tendons, and joints.
4. A type of proprioceptors ______ ______ _____ located in the musculotendinous junction detects tension applied during _____ ______ stretch.
5. The nervous system responds by ___________ muscle contraction, and allows the muscle to ________ and relax.
- 1. Hyperflexibility / instability
- 2. Extensibility, Hyperflexibility, Genetics
- 3. Proprioceptors
- 4. Golgi Tendon Organs
- 5. Reflexively / Stretch
1. __________ contractions are the most common in the body.
2. Concentric contractions resulting in __________ of the Muscle. The muscles of this contaction are called _________
3. Eccentric contractions resulting in ___________ of the Muscle and occuer when muscle experiences resistance. The muscles are call ___________.
4. _________ is the maintenance of optimal body position.
5. Continued partial contraction of skeletal muscles is called ______ ______ or ______.
6. Muscles with less tone than normal are called _______. Muscles with more tone than normal are called ______
- 1. Isotonic
- 2. Shorting
- 3. Lengthening / Decelerators
- 4. Posture
- 5. Muscle Tone / Tonus
- 6. Flaccid / Spastic