Secretary: appointed by the president and confirmed by the Senate.
Undersecretary: appointed by president without Senate confirmation.
Senior Executive Service: includes appointees and non-appointees, and don't need Senate approval.
Examples of Smaller Units of each Department
Bureau of Land Management (Interior)
Federal Bureau of Investigation (Justice)
Internal Revenue Service (Treasury)
Immigration and Naturalization Service (Homeland Security)
Federal Aviation Administration (Transportation)
Cross between private business corporation and government agency.
Ex. Amtrak, PBS, USPS
Branch of bureaucracy separate from cabinet departments that have specialized knowledge of their duties, and act as checks against politic-swayed legislation.
Independent agencies who have the responsibility of filling in gaps in legislation dealing with issues of their jurisdiction.
Independent agencies responsible for rule enforcement and punishing violators.
Federal Trade Commission
Responsible for preventing fraud in the market-place by preventing price fixing and deceptive advertising.
Securities and Exchange Commission
Protects investors by regulating stock markets and policing corporations to prevent false and misleading claims of profits in an effort to increase stock prices.
Nuclear Regulatory Commission
Controls how electric power companies design, build, and operate nuclear reactors.
The Federal Communications Commission
Responsible for assigning broadcast frequencies, for licensing radio and television stations, and for regulating the use of wireless communication devices.
The Food and Drug Administration
Responsible for ensuring the health of the American people by inspecting the food supply for contaminants and spoilage.
The agency is also responsible for regulating the sale of over-the-counter ddrugs and patent medicines.
The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission
Responsible for preventing price fixing and price manipulation in electric utilities, interstate oil and gas pipelines, and natural gas suppliers.
The Occupational Safety and Health Administration
Responsible for ensuring workers are employed in a safe work environment. For example, OSHA can regulate the type of ventilation in a factory, as well as the type of clothing worn and tools used.
Who Runs Regulatory Agencies
Ran by panels of administrators called Boards of Commissioners, who are appointed by the president.
Terms generally overlap with presidential terms, but last anywhere between 3 to 14 years.
Control Over Bureaucracy
Precsident can reduce or expand the budget of an agency.
President can reorganize an agency.
Congress can abolish an agency or change its jurisdictino if it is unhappy with policy implementation.
Congress has the final appropriation power over agencies.
Informal alliances made up of three groups:
A particular industry and its lobbyists. (Weapons Manufacturers)
The congressional committee dealing with that industry (Armed Services Committes)
The agency that actually is affected (Pentagon).
Alliance Network/ Issue Network
Working relationship between coalitions, interest groups, members of Congress, and bureaucrats.
Civil Service System
Established by the Pendleton Act, this system is regulated by the Ooffice of Personnel Management, which administers civil service exams, publishes government job openings, and hires employees on the basis of merit.