Mac OS X Support Essentials 10.6
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What utilities are available when booted from the Mac OSX Install DVD?
The Utilities menu when booted from the Mac OSX Install DVD includes Startup Disk, Reset Password, Firmware Password Utility, Disk Utility, Terminal, System Profiler, Network Utility, and Restore System From Backup
What are the minimum hardware requirements for installing Mac OSX 10.6?
- The minimum requirements are:
- * A Mac with an Intel processor
- * 1 GB of memory
- * 5 GB of available disk space
- * DVD Drive for installation (Installation on a MacBook Air requires either an external DVD drive or another computer with a DVD drive)
- *A built-in display or a display connected to an Apple-supplied video card supported by your computer
- *Some features require a compatible Internet service provider
- * Some features require Apple's MobileMe service
What four preparation steps must you take before installing Mac OSX?
- 1. Check for firmware updates
- 2. Verify application compatibility
- 3. Back up vital files and folders
- 4. Document critical settings
What are the advantages and disadvantages of using a single-partition drive with Mac OSX? How about a multiple-partition drive?
Single-partition drives are easier to set up initially, but they aren't as flexible for administration and maintenance. Multiple-parition drives require repartitioning during setup but provide several seperate volumes, which can be used to segregate user data and host multiple operating systems.
Which packages are installed by default when installing Mac OSX?
Items installed by default include the essential system software, printer drivers for currently used printers, additional fonts, language translations, and X11. Optional items include more printer drivers, Rosetta, and QuickTime 7.
Where can you locate the system version, build number, and serial number? What are the significance of these numbers?
- The system version, build number, and hardware serial number are located in the About This Mac dialog or login screen.
- The system version number defines the specific version of Mac OSX currently installed. The system build number is an even more specific identifier used primarily by developers. Finally, the hardware serial number is a unique number used to identify your specific Mac.
How do the four System Preferences categories differ?
Generally, Personal preferences affect only the single user, Hardware preferences adjust hardware and peripheral settings, Internet & Wireless preferences affect personal and system network settings, and System Preferences affect all users and often require administrative access.
How do you ensure that you have the latest Apple software?
The Software Update application checks for Apple software updates via the Internet. You can adjust automatic update settings or manually open the Software Update application from the Software Update preferences.
What are the five types of user accounts in Mac OSX? How are they different?
- 1.) Standard is the default account type
- 2.) Administrative users can make changes to the system
- 3.) Guest user does not require a password
- 4.) Sharing users can access only shared files
- 5.) the Root user has unlimited access.
What are account attributes?
Account attributes are the individual pieces of information that are used to define a user account. Examples include full name, account name, user ID, group, and home directory.
How can you limit a user account?
Parental Controls can be used to further limit a user account. Examples include enforcing a simple Finder, limiting applications and widgets, setting time limits, and content filtering.
What are some security risks associated with each type of user account?
Standard user accounts are very secure assuming they have good passwords. Administrative accounts can make changes that may negatively affect the system or other user accounts. A guest user could potentially fill your system with unwanted files. Sharing only users are generally very secure as long as you don't give them too much access to your items. The potential for mayhem with root user access is nearly unlimited.
What default folders make up a user's home folder?
The default folders in a user's home folder are Desktop, Documents, Downloads, Library, Movies, Music, Pictures, Public, and Sites.
What three types of resource contention issues can occur when fast user switching is enabled?
Resource contention occurs when fast user switching is enabled and a user tries to access an item that another user already has open in the background. Document contention occurs when a user attempts to open a document that another user has already opened. Peripheral contention occurs when a user attempts to access a peripheral that is already in use by another user's open application. Application contention occurs when the second user attempts to access an application that is designed to run only once on a system.
What security risk can occur when fast user switching is enabled?
When fast user switching is enabled, all users are allowed to see other users' locally connected volumes.
What does a keychain do?
A keychain is an encrypted file that is used to securely save passwords, certificates, or notes. By default, every user has a login keychain that has the same password as his account.
How does File Vault secure a user's data?
File Vault stores the user's home folder in an encrypted disk image. This disk image is accessible only by the FireVault user.
How does resetting the master password affect existing FileVault user accounts?
If a known master password is reset using the Security preferences, previous FileVault accounts will not be negatively affected. On the other hand, if a master password is reset because it is lost, preexisting FileVault accounts cannot be reset by the new master password until all the old FileVault passwords are reset.
How does resetting a user's password as an administrative user affect that user's keychains?
In an administrative user resets another user's account or FileVault password, this process will not change any keychain passwords. Therefore, ther user's keychains will not open when the user logs in with her new password. The user will have to manually change her keychain passwords using the Keychain Access utility.
How does Firmware Password utility have prevent users from making unauthorized password changes?
The Firmware Password utility prevents users from booting off other devices. This in turn prevents them from using the Mac OSX Install DVD to reset local passwords without authorization.
What are six reasons for using the command-line environment?
- 1. It gives you access to options not available in the graphical interface
- 2. It lets you bypass Finder restrictions
- 3. Administrators can act as root at the command line
- 4. Remote SSH is invisible to the user
- 5. It makes automation easy with scripting
- 6. You can combine the command line with Apple Remote Desktop (ARD) to send administrative commands remotely to multiple Macs at the same time.
What four methods can be used to access the command-line environment?
- 1.) The Terminal application
- 2.) ">console" at the login screen
- 3.) Single-user mode startup
- 4.) Remotely via SSH
What three items are in the default command-line user prompt?
The three items in the default command-line user prompt from left to right are: computer hostname:working directory user account$
What are the three main components of a typical command?
The three main components of a typical command are: the Command's Name -Command Options (adds conditions, limits, or other modifiers to the command) Command Arguments (the recipient of the action, often specified as a file or folder path)
What do the following describe: folder, directory, path, absolute path, and relative path?
- Folders and directories are both terms used to describe containers in the file system
- Path defines directions to a specific item in the file system.
- Absolute paths are full directions to a specific item
- Relative paths are partial directions to a specific item based on the user's current working location.
What is the difference between absolute and relative paths?
Absolute paths always start from the root, or beginning, of the file system, whereas relative paths start from the user's current working location. The default working location of users is at the root of their home folder
Which command is used to list items in a folder?
The ls command is used to list items in a folder.
Which two commands can be used to read text files?
Two commands used to read text files are cat and less.
What is the sudo command used for?
The sudo command is used to allow administrators to run commands with root privileges.
What are the two primary automation technologies for the graphical interface? How do they differ?
Automator is an easy-to-use application that can create workflows based on pre-defined actions. AppleScript is an English-like scripting language that allows you to script graphical applications.
What are the three minimal steps required for creating a command-line script?
- Create a plain text file containing a list of commands
- Make the first line "#!/bin/bash"
- Change the file's permissions to allow execution
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