Pharm

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cassiedh
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78758
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Pharm
Updated:
2011-04-10 23:26:09
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drugs drugs and all those dang boxes
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  1. what MET is it when a person can dress, eat or use toilet. walk indoors around the hous, complete light housework and wak a block on level ground at 2 to 3 mph
    > or eaqual to 1 MET
  2. what MET is it when a person can climb a flight of stairs, walk up a hill. walk on level ground at 4 mph. run a short distance. complete heavy housework and participate in moderate recreational activitie?
    > or equal to 4 METs
  3. what MET is it when a person can participate in strenuous sprts
    > or equal to 10 METs
  4. what is the mechanism of diuretics?
    cause body to eliminate excess fluids and sodium through urination
  5. what drugs cause the body to eliminate excess fluids and sodium through urination
    diuretics
  6. what drugs end in olols
    beta-blockers
  7. what is the mechanism of beta blockers?
    decrease the heart rate and output of blood from the heart by blocking beta-sympathetic stimulation in the heart?
  8. what drug decreases the heart rate and output of blood from the heart by blocking beta-sympathetic stimulation in the heart?
    beta-blockers
  9. what drugs end in prils?
    ACE inhibitors
  10. what drug expands blood vessles (vasodilation) and decreases resistance to blood flow?
    ACE inhibitors
  11. what is the mechanism of ACE inhibitors?
    expand blood vessles (vasodilation) and decrease resistance to blood flow
  12. what is the mechanism of calcium channel blockers?
    interrupt the movement of calcium into the cells of the heart and blood vessels to produce vasodilation
  13. what drugs end in pines
    calcium channel blockers
  14. what drug interrupts the movemnt of calcium into the cells of the heart and blood vessels to produce vasodilation
    calcium channel blockers
  15. what drug inhibits vasoconstriction by blocking angiotensin binding, resulting in vasodilation
    angiotensin-receptor blockers
  16. what is the mechanism of angiotensin receptor blockers
    inhibt vasoconstriction by blocking angiotensin binding, resulting in vasodilation
  17. what drug prevents sympathetic innervation to alpah-receptors, therby blocking vasoconstriction and tachycardia
    alpha blockers
  18. what is the mechanism of alpha blockers?
    prevent sympathetic innervation to alpha receptors thereby blocking vasoconstriction and tachycardia
  19. what is the prototype for thiazide diuretics?
    hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ)
  20. what are the three main types of diuretics?
    • thiazide
    • loop
    • potassium sparing
  21. what is the mechanism of action for hydrochlorothiazide?
    interfere with sodium reabsorption in the distal tubule of the kidney and promote diuresis
  22. what is the most common adverse reaction with hydrochlorothiazide?
    hypokalemia
  23. what is the dental drug interaction with hydrochlorothiazide?
    COX inhibitor analgesics-reduce the antihypertensive effect of agent
  24. what is the most common loop diuretic?
    furosemide (lasix)
  25. what is the mechanism of action of furosemide?
    inhibit reabsorption of sodium and promote diuresis (loop diuretic)
  26. what is an adverse effect of furosemide?
    hyperkalemia
  27. what is a dental drug interaction with furosemide?
    COX inhibitor
  28. what are two examples of potassium sparing diuretics?
    spironolactone and triamterene
  29. what is the mechanism of action of potassium sparing diuretics (spironolactone and triamterene)
    interfere with the potassium/sodium exchange in the collecting tubules and collecting duct to conserve potassium that is reabsorbed at the expense of sodium in the exchange system
  30. a potassium sparing and thiazide combination therapy is common. what are the drugs used in combination?
    Triamterene and hydrochlorothiazide
  31. what are thre three types of beta blocking agents?
    • nonselective beta blockers
    • selective agents that block B1 more than B2
    • agents that block both alpha and beta
  32. what type of beta blocker has an increased risk of hypertension if a vasoconstrictor is used?
    nonselective
  33. what are the side effects of beta blockers? 5
    • bradycardia
    • dizziness
    • fatigue
    • nausea
    • mild xerostomia
  34. what are the drug interactions with beta blockers?
    COX inhibitors-antagonize antihypertensive effects
  35. what is the prototype for nonseletive beta blockers?
    propranolol (inderal)
  36. t/f vasoconstrictors can be used with nonselective beta blockers
    true-low concentrations and aspirating technique used
  37. what is the agent of choice for conditions of bronchospasm?
    selective beta blockers
  38. t/f vasoconstrictors are safe to use with selective beta blockers
    true
  39. what is alpah and beta adrenergic blocking agent?
    labetalol (Normodyne)
  40. t/f labetalol is a alpha and beta adrenergic blocking agent. It may be prescribed in comination with diuretics.
    both statements are true
  41. what drugs are effective for hypertension, arrhythmia and angina pectoris
    calcium channel blockers CCB
  42. what are ADEs associated with calcium channel blockers?
    gingival hyperplasia, xerostomia and dysguesia (nifedipine)
  43. what CCB drugs are less lidkley to produce gingival hyperplasia?
    amlodipine and isradipine
  44. what are three examples of CCB drugs?
    • nifedipine
    • amlodipine
    • isradipine
  45. t/f cox inhibitors can be used for analgesia with calcium channel blockers
    TRUE no drug interactions
  46. what drug blocks vasoconstriction of coronary arteries (angiotensin inhibitor)
    lisinopril
  47. what is a drug to drug interaction with ACE inhibitors?
    COX inhibitors
  48. what are the side effects of ACE inhibitors?
    dry hacking cough (worsen with supine position)
  49. what is the prototype for angiotensin 2 receptor inhibitors?
    Iosartan (Cozaar)
  50. t/f angiotensin 2 receptor inhibitors are safe to use during pregancy
    FALSE-category D in 2nd and 3rd trimester. They should NOT be used during pregnancy
  51. what are two examples of alpha1-adrenergic blockers
    doxazosin and terazosin
  52. what are three CNS mediated action drugs? (-INE)
    clonidine, guanethidine and reserpine
  53. what is the potential drug interaction with alpha adrenergic blockers?
    • epinephrine (reduceds duration of local anesthetic)
    • COX inhibitors reduce antihypertensive effect
  54. what is the drug of choice for hypertension associated with pregnancy?
    hydralazine
  55. what are the side effects affecting DH of hydralazine?
    orthostatic hypotension and cardiac palpitation
  56. what are the common adverse drug effects?
    • Urination-diuretics
    • fatigue-beta blockers
    • chronic dry cough - ACE inhibitors
    • Gingival hyperplasia-some CCBs
    • postural hypotension and xerostomia-several classes
  57. what class of drugs has a common effect of urination?
    diuretics
  58. what class of drugs has a common effect of fatigue
    beta blockers
  59. what class of drugs has a common effect of chronic dry cough
    ACE inhibitors
  60. what class of drugs has a common effect of gingival hyperplasia?
    some CCBs
  61. what class of drugs has a common effect of postural hypotension and xerostomia?
    several classes
  62. what effect does COX-1 inhibitors have on antihypertensive agents?
    reduce efficacy
  63. what effect does sympathomimetic amines have on bata adrenergic blockers?
    decreases effect
  64. nonselective beta blockers have interactions with what to cause hypertensive reactions caused by unopposed alpha adrenergic stimulation?
    epinephrine
  65. what effect does pilocarpine have on antihypertensives?
    may ave additive effect leading to hypotension
  66. what are the five therapeutic goals of CAD?
    • inhibit progression atherosclerosis
    • improve circulation in coronary arteries
    • reduce workload
    • prevent thrombus formation
    • prevent coagulation (warfarin)
  67. what is the pharm strategy for inhibiting progression of atherosclerosis? 4
    • lipid lowering agents
    • HMG-Co-A reductase inhibitors
    • bile acid sequestrants
    • Niacin
  68. what is the Parm strategy for improving circulation in coronary arteries? 2
    • nitrates
    • calcium channel blocking agents
  69. what is the pharm strategy for reducing workload?
    B1-adreneergic receptor antagonist
  70. what is the pharm strategy for preventing thrombus formation?
    antithrombotic agents
  71. what is the pharm strategy for prevention of coagulation?
    anticoagulants (warfarin)
  72. what ist he recommendation for total cholesterol levels? what about LDL levels?
    • total cholesterol <200 mg/dl
    • LDL <130 mg/dl
  73. what are the agents used to lower cholesterol?
    • HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (STATIN)
    • bile acid sequestrants
    • fibric acid derivaties
    • Niacin
    • ezetimibe, ezetimibe and simvastatin
  74. t/f HMG-CoA has many ADEs and they affect dentaly hygiene treatment
    false usually mild and do not affect DH tx
  75. what are three examples of bile acid sequestrants?
    cholestryramine, colesevelam, colestipol
  76. how must bile acid sequestrants be taken with other oral medications?
    take drug 1 hour before or 4-6 hours after other drugs
  77. what are two examples of fibric acid derivatives?
    • gemfibrozil (lipid)
    • fenofibrate (TriCor)
  78. what are the drug interactions of fibric acid derivaties?
    none
  79. what are the tree effects of Niacin?
    • reduces 10-20% reduction in total and LDL
    • reduces 30-70% reduction in triglycerides
    • increase 20-35% in HDL
  80. what are the fast acting vasodilating agents used for angina pectoris?
    amyl nitrate, nitroglycerin
  81. what are the long acting agents for prevention and treatment of angina pectoris?
    • isosorbide dinitrate
    • isosorbide mononitrate
    • calcium channel blocking agents
  82. what is used to MANAGE anginal pain?
    nitroglycerin
  83. what is used to PREVENT and TREAT angina?
    isosorbide mononitrate or dinitrate
  84. what MET does a pt with CAD have to be to recieve care?
    4 MET
  85. what do you as DH do for an angina attack?
    provide 100% oxygen
  86. what are the 10 class I antiarrhythmic drugs
    • disopyramide
    • procainamide
    • quinidine
    • lidocaine
    • tocainide
    • mexiletine
    • flecainide
    • moricizine
    • propafenone
    • phenytoin
  87. what are the three class II antiarrhythmic drugs? olol
    • propranolo
    • esmolol
    • acebutolol
  88. what are the three class III antiarrhythmic drugs
    • amiodarone
    • bretylium
    • sotalol
  89. what is the class IV antiarrhythmic drug?
    verapamil
  90. what are the two miscellaneous antiarrhytmic drugs?
    • digoxin
    • adenosine
  91. what antiarrhythmic agent has a drug interaction with local anesthetics-increased CNS effects
    propafenone
  92. t/f vasoconstrictors may interact adversely with digoxin and nonselective beta adrenergic blocking drugs
    true
  93. when are vasoconstrictors contraindicated wtih arrhythmias?
    with intractable arrhythmias
  94. what are the four complications of arterial thrombi?
    • blood clots in brain (stroke)
    • mural thrombosis
    • occlusion of coronary artery grafts
    • transient ischemic attack
  95. what are the two main classes of antithrombotic agents?
    • aspirin
    • clopidogrel
  96. when is clopidogrel prescribed
    when a pt cannot take aspirin (antithrombotic agents)
  97. what are the two main groups of anticoagulants?
    heparin and warfarin
  98. what are two low molecular weight heparin agents available for home use?
    • dalteparin
    • enoxaparin
  99. what is the mechanism of action of warfarin?
    interferes with the synthesis of several vitamin K clottin factors including thrombin (factors II, VII, IX and X) in the liver
  100. what drug interferes with the synthesis of several vitamin K clotting factors including thrombin (factors II, VII, IX, X) in the liver
    warfarin
  101. what are the drug interactions of COX 1 inhibitors and antibiotics?
    increase INR level
  102. ______ (a drug) increases metabolism and reduces anticoagulant effect
    phenobarbital
  103. what shouldbe be used for analgesic with warfarin?
    short term acetaminophen or opiod analgesics WITHOUT aspirin
  104. what anticoagulant drug is used after replacement of prosthetic heart valves?
    dipyridamole (Persantine)
  105. with warfarin what levels do you need to monitor and what should the number be?
    INR levels LESS THAN 3.5
  106. what are the agents used in heart failure?
    cardiac glycosides
  107. what are three examples of cardiac glycosides used for heart failure?
    • digitalis
    • digitoxin
    • digoxin
  108. what is the most common cardiac glycoside used for heart failure?
    digoxin (lanoxin)
  109. what is the vasoconstrictor formulation usd for digoxin?
    1:200,000
  110. how many cartridges of 1:100,000 epi can be given to a pt of 4 METs
    2

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