Bio Tarleton test 3 prep ch.23

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kat
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Bio Tarleton test 3 prep ch.23
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2011-04-13 08:22:02
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Animal biology test three prep
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  1. Which of the following statements best describes "deoxygenated" blood?
    It has lost some of its oxygen to the body's tissues.
  2. Which of the following statements about blood circulation in fish is true?
    Valves in the heart prevent blood from entering more than one chamber at a time.
  3. True or false. At the systemic capillary beds in fish, oxygen is released to the cells, which pass carbon dioxide to the blood; this carbon dioxide will eventually be released from the fish at the gill capillary bed.
    True
  4. Which artery supplies the frog's head with oxygenated blood?
    Carotid arch
  5. Which of the following statements best describes the function of the left side of the ventricle?
    It pumps oxygenated blood around the body via the systemic circuit.
  6. True or false. In frogs, blood flows through the pulmocutaneous circuit between the heart and the lungs and skin and through the systemic circuit between the heart and the rest of the body.
    True
  7. Which of the following statements best describes the function of the left ventricle?
    it pumps oxygenated blood around the body via the systemic circulation
  8. Which of the following statements about blood circulation in humans is true?
    During one cardiac cycle, the two ventricles contract first, and then the two atria contract.

    Deoxygenated blood flowing through the pulmonary veins is carried to the right atrium.

    As the right ventricle contracts, it sends oxygenated blood through the aorta to all tissues of the body.

    Valves prevent the backflow of blood into the atria and ventricles.
    Valves prevent the backflow of blood into the atria and ventricles.
  9. True or false. The circulatory system of humans is composed of two loops: the systemic circulation, in which blood flows between the heart and lungs, and the pulmonary circulation, in which blood flows between the heart and the rest of the body.
    False
  10. Which of the following vessels distributes oxygen-rich (oxygenated) blood from the heart to the body in humans?

    capillary bed
    vein
    aorta
    vena cava
    aorta
  11. The wall of the left ventricle is thicker than the wall of the right ventricle in order to:
    pump blood with greater pressure
  12. Blood that flows through the pulmonary veins will be carried to the:
    left atrium
  13. The pulmonary semilunar valve opens:
    when the ventricles contract
  14. The role of the atrioventricular valves in the heart is:
    to allow blood to flow from the atria into the ventricles and to prevent the blood from flowing back into the atria while the ventricles contract.
  15. Deoxygenated blood is delivered to the heart through:
    the superior and inferior vena cavae
  16. Which of the following statements accurately describes the circulatory systems of fish and giraffes?
    Gravity does not affect aquatic animals because their bodies are supported by water, but it has profound effects on terrestrial species.
  17. Which of the following describes a system in which fluid is pumped through open-ended vessels, where it is allowed to flow out among the cells and there is no distinction between blood and interstitial fluid
    open circulatory system
  18. Which of the following have a single-circuit system of circulating blood?
    fish
  19. Which of the following accurately describes double circulation?
    Blood is vigorously pumped between the heart and lungs and from the heart to the rest of the body.
  20. The role of ventricles is to _____
    pump blood to arteries
  21. The aorta receives _____ blood from the _____.
    oxygen-rich … left ventricle
  22. During the diastole phase of the cardiac cycle, _____.
    the atrioventricular valves are open and the semilunar valves are closed
  23. Cardiac output is a measure of _____
    the volume of blood per minute pumped from the left ventricle
  24. During a heartbeat, the AV node _____.
    delays the signal from the pacemaker to cardiac muscle fiber
  25. Atherosclerosis is _____
    the accumulation of plaques or cholesterol along the inner walls of arteries, causing a narrowing of the blood vessels
  26. Which of the following has/have the highest blood pressure?
    the aorta
  27. You are studying a vessel with a smooth muscle layer and valves. What kind of vessel could this be?
    vein
  28. Which of the following would be considered to be indicative of hypertension?
    120/110
  29. Precapillary sphincters _____
    regulate the distribution of blood
  30. Why do water and solutes leave capillaries at the arterial end
    Blood pressure is greater than osmotic pressure at the arterial end.
  31. What process are leukocytes involved in
    fighting infections
  32. Which of the following is an example of a condition that could lead to anemia
    excessive undetected blood loss
  33. A blood clot consists of _____.
    fibrin, platelets, and blood cells
  34. A thrombus is a _____.
    clot that forms in the absence of injury and travels, causing a block in another artery
  35. Why do leukemia patients sometimes need a bone marrow transplant?
    If the patient does not respond to standard chemotherapy and radiation treatments, a bone marrow transplant is another treatment option.
  36. In which of the following animals are blood and interstitial fluid the same
    grasshopper
  37. Which of the following best describes an artery?
    Arteries carry blood away from the heart.
  38. list the correct order of blood flow?
    right atrium, right ventricle, pulmonary artery, lungs, pulmonary vein, left atrium, left ventricle
  39. Which statement regarding the direction of blood flow and the oxygen content of blood vessels is true?
    Pulmonary veins carry oxygen-rich blood to the heart.
  40. In which of the following are you likely to find oxygen-rich blood?
    aorta
  41. During ventricular systole, blood flows _____.
    from the left ventricle into the aorta, and from the right ventricle into the pulmonary arteries
  42. What is the function of the AV node?
    The AV node relays the signal for cardiac muscle contraction to the ventricles.
  43. Which of the following have valves?
    veins
  44. Blood pressure is lowest in _____.
    the venae cavae
  45. How do oxygen and carbon dioxide cross capillary walls?
    diffusion
  46. What process are leukocytes involved in?
    fighting infections
  47. Why do leukemia patients sometimes need a bone marrow transplant?
    If the patient does not respond to standard chemotherapy and radiation treatments, a bone marrow transplant is another treatment option.
  48. Which of the following organisms has an open circulatory system?
    insect
    whale
    fish
    cat
    lizard
    fish
  49. Which animal has a closed circulatory system?
    Hydra
    fish
    snail
    beetle
    crayfish
    fish
  50. Urine formed by a kidney collects in the _____ before being drained from the kidney by the _____ and transported to the _____.
    renal pelvis ... ureter ...urinary bladder
  51. The _____ are the major blood vessels transporting blood to the kidneys.
    renal arteries
  52. The outer part of the kidney is the _____.
    cortex
  53. What is the functional unit of a kidney?
    nephron
  54. Which best describes the function of the kidneys?
    filtering blood, removing wastes and regulating water balance
  55. __________ are the functional units of the kidney
    Nephrons
  56. The active movement of ions and drugs from capillaries into tubules is called
    secretion
  57. If you are dehydrated, ___________would increase in your kidneys.
    reabsorption
  58. What would potentially be hindered by the presence of a kidney stone located where urine exits the kidney?
    excretion
  59. Under the influence of antidiuretic hormone (ADH), _____ is produced.
    more concentrated urine
  60. Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) makes the _____ permeable to water.
    collecting duct
  61. The movement of substances out of the glomerulus and into Bowman's capsule is referred to as _____.
    filtration
  62. What is reabsorbed from filtrate?
    • sodium chloride
    • glucose
    • water
    • amino acids
  63. As filtrate moves down the loop of Henle, the surrounding interstitial fluid becomes _____ concentrated than the filtrate, so _____ leaves the filtrate.
    more ... water
  64. The most abundant solute in urine is _____.
    urea (and other nitrogenous wastes)
  65. Glucose is removed from filtrate by _____.
    active transport
  66. The movement of substances from the blood into the proximal tubule is known as ____
    secretion
  67. Where does fertilization of an egg cell occur?
    oviduct
  68. Which hormone spikes midway through the menstrual cycle and triggers ovulation?
    Luteinizing hormone (LH
  69. True or false. The corpus luteum develops from the ruptured follicle during the luteal phase after ovulation and produces hormones that can aid in pregnancy.
    True
  70. True or false. During sperm maturation, secondary spermatocytes are the products of meiosis II that go on to form spermatids, which undergo restructuring to form spermatozoa.
    false
  71. Which male reproductive structures are responsible for the transport and delivery of sperm?
    Vas deferens, urethra, and penis
  72. What events does NOT occur during human fertilization?
    Enzymes on the outside of the sperm break down the follicle cells surrounding the egg
  73. A fertilized egg usually implants itself and develops in the _____.
    Uterus
  74. A rapid increase in the _____ level stimulates ovulation.
    luteinizing hormone
  75. After ovulation, high levels of _____ inhibit _____ secretion
    FSH and LH ... estrogen and progesterone
  76. Developing ovarian follicles primarily secrete _____.
    Estrogens
  77. If there is fertilization, secretion of _____ by the early embryo maintains the corpus luteum.
    human chorionic gonadotropin
  78. If there is no fertilization, degeneration of the corpus luteum results in a drop in _____, which results in the sloughing off of the uterus's endometrium.
    estrogen and progesterone
  79. Ovulation usually occurs on or about day _____ of a 28-day ovarian cycle.
    14
  80. Gametogenesis is to spermatogenesis and oogenesis as _____________________.
    gonads are to testes and ovaries
  81. Which of the following options lists cell types in the correct order of their appearance during spermatogenesis?
    primary spermatocyte, secondary spermatocyte, spermatid, sperm
  82. What is a similarity between spermatogenesis and oogenesis?
    both involve meiosis and the production of haploid cells
  83. The completion of meiosis II during oogenesis occurs at ______________.
    fertilization
  84. During oogenesis, polar bodies _____________.
    are discarded.
  85. Which of the following terms describes the embryonic cell divisions that occur without cell growth in mammals?
    Cleavage
  86. True or false. Early animal development progresses through distinct stages: first the production of the zygote through fertilization, then cleavage, then the formation of the gastrula, and then the formation of the blastula.
    FALSE
  87. WHAT Primate groups is most closely related to hominids?
    apes
  88. _____ are the oldest known primate group.
    Prosimiens
  89. The primates that spend the most time walking upright are the _____.
    Homioids
  90. Which of these anthropoid groups consists of primates who are mostly tree dwellers and whose forelimbs and hind limbs are about equal in length?
    monkeys
  91. Which of these primate groups lives in trees in Central and South America and have nostrils that are wide open and far apart?
    New world monkeys
  92. Geckos are able to walk up walls and across ceilings because of
    the many setae on their toes that form molecular bonds with the wall and ceiling surface.
  93. The connection between structure and ________ is a basic concept of biology.
    function
  94. Some animals have evolved a body form that allows them to run very fast, while others run more slowly. Whereas a cheetah can run at speeds over 50 mph, an elephant can barely run at 15 mph. The most important physical factor behind this variance is the difference in speed?
    the ratio of muscle to their total body mass.
  95. Structure in the living world is organized into hierarchical levels. Which of the following lists these from least inclusive to most inclusive?
    molecule, cell, tissue, organ, organ system, organism
  96. Which of the following is an example of a tissue?
    heart muscle
  97. Stratified squamous epithelium is well-suited for
    lining body surfaces subject to abrasion.
  98. The most common type of connective tissue in the human body is
    loose connective tissue.
  99. Which of the following tissues would likely be found in the small intestine?
    nervius tussue
  100. What happens to nutrient macromolecules in an animal's digestive tract?
    Nutrient macromolecules are digested into monomers before absorption.
  101. An animal digestive tract that consists of two openings (a mouth and anus) is called
    alimentary canal
  102. Human saliva performs all of the following functions except
    hydrolyzing proteins.
  103. The epiglottis is a
    lap of cartilage that flips down to cover the entry to the trachea during swallowing
  104. The function of the pyloric sphincter is to
    periodically release chyme into the duodenum in periodic squirts.
  105. The secretory parietal cells of the stomach are responsible for producing
    HCL
  106. Epithelial cells lining the intestine have surface projections that increase nutrient absorption. These projections are called
    microvill
  107. What is the main digestive function of the pancreas?
    to produce digestive enzymes and a bicarbonate buffeR
  108. Which of the following is important in the digestion of lipids?
    bile salts
  109. Bile produced in the liver is stored in the ________ before entering the intestine.
    Gallbladder
  110. Which enzyme breaks large polypeptides into smaller polypeptides?
    chymotrypsin
  111. Nutrients absorbed by the intestines move directly to the liver, which
    converts excess glucose to glycogen.
  112. Absorption of water is a major function of the
    colon
  113. Essential fatty acids, which are required in the human diet, are
    those fatty acids that humans are unable to synthesize.
  114. In mammals, blood returning from the head will pass through the ________ just before entering the right atrium.
    superior vena cava
  115. In mammals, which of the following vessels transports oxygenated blood from the lung back to the heart?
    pulmonary vein
  116. Oxygen-poor blood is carried from the heart of a mammal to the lungs via the
    Pulmonary arteries.
  117. Blood is pumped from the heart to the lungs by the
    RIGHT VENTRICLE
  118. rom the left ventricle, oxygen-rich blood flows through the
    arota
  119. Cardiac output is defined as the volume of blood pumped by a(n) ________ each time it contracts.
    VENTRICLE
  120. During which phase of the heartbeat does the heart fill with blood?
    distole
  121. During ventricular systole, the ________ valves ________.
    • semilunar . . . open
    • AV . . . close
  122. Heart rate is least influenced by
    the number of cells per unit of blood.
  123. The location of the heart's pacemaker is a specialized region of cardiac muscle called the
    sinoatrial node
  124. Which vessels have the thinnest walls?
    capillaries
  125. Arteries are distinguished from veins based on all of the following features except
    the amount of oxygen present in the blood
  126. Which of the following physiological responses occurs in the human body when it becomes overheated?
    increased blood flow to the skin
  127. The transfer of heat from arteries carrying warm blood past veins returning cooler blood is an example of
    a countercurrent heat exchanger.
  128. Marine animals that have body fluids with a solute concentration equal to that of the surrounding seawater are
    osmoconformers
  129. tatements regarding saltwater fish is true?
    The concentration of solutes in the internal fluids of saltwater fish is much lower than in the surrounding water.
  130. Birds, like other animals, must eliminate ammonia or urea, and do so by converting them to
    uric acid
  131. The land animals that evolved from earlier aquatic forms had to change their mechanisms for excreting nitrogenous wastes because
    land animals had a more difficult time with water balance than aquatic species since water was not always available on land
  132. What is the advantage of excreting nitrogenous waste in the form of ammonia?
    Ammonia excretion conserves energy.
  133. kinds of animals excrete their nitrogenous waste entirely as ammonia?
    fish
  134. Which of the following is a function of the vertebrate liver?
    ombining ammonia and carbon dioxide
  135. lists the structures in the kidney in the order in which fluid flows through them?
    glomerulus, Bowman's capsule, proximal tubule, loop of Henle, distal tubuleCorrect
  136. The first step in the formation of urine is the
    formation of filtrate that accumulates in Bowman's capsule.
  137. Why must water that has moved to the interstitial fluid in the medulla be quickly removed from the interstitial fluid?
    to prevent destruction of the concentration gradient necessary for water reabsorption
  138. Water moves out of filtrate in the nephron tubule into the interstitial fluid by
    osmosis

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