A&P_Chapter_2

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A&P_Chapter_2
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2011-04-11 07:26:34
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Medic12 Chapter2
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A&P Chapter 2 Medic12
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  1. Atoms
    Smallest units of matter; they consist of protons, neutrons, & electrons. (nanometers)
  2. Molecule
    Chemical structures that contain more than one atom bonded together by shared electrons.
  3. Ions
    Atoms or molecules that have an electric charge.
  4. Anion
    Ions with a negative charge.
  5. Cation
    Ions with a positive charge.
  6. Carbohydrate
    Is an organic molecule that contains carbon, hydrogen, & oxygen in a ratio near 1:2:1.
  7. Electrolytes
    Inorganic compounds whose ions can conduct an electrical current in solution. (salt)
  8. Electrons
    Subatomic particles that are contained in atoms. Much lighter than protons and have a negative electrical charge.
  9. Enzymes
    Speed up & or reduce the harsh energy or pH requirements normally required for certain reactions that support life. (Catalysts)
  10. Lipids
    • 1) Contain carbon, hydrogen, & oxygen.
    • 2) May contain small quantities of other elements, including phosphorus, nitrogen or sulfur.
    • 3) Most are insoluble in water, but special transport mechanisms carry them in the circulating blood.
    • 4) Form essential structural components of all cells.
    • 5) Provide 2x as much energy carbs when broken down in the body.
  11. Nucleic Acid
    • 1) Contain carbon, hydrogen, & oxygen.
    • 2) May contain small quantities of other elements, including phosphorus, nitrogen or sulfur.
    • 3) Most are insoluble in water, but special transport mechanisms carry them in the circulating blood.
    • 4) Form essential structural components of all cells.
    • 5) Provide 2x as much energy carbs when brocken down in the body.
  12. DNA
    • 1) determines our inherited characteristics
    • 2) encode the information needed to build proteins → affects all aspects of body structure & function
    • 3) directs synthesis of structural proteins → controls shape & physical characteristics of our bodies
    • 4) controls manufacture of enzymes → regulates protein synthesis & all aspects of cellular metabolism (creation & destruction of lipids, carbohydrates, & other vital molecules)
  13. RNA
    • ribonucleic acid
    • Several forms cooperate to manufacture specific proteins uning the information provided by DNA.
  14. Protein
    • 1) contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen; smaller quantities of sulfur may be present
    • 2) most abundant organic components of the human body & in many ways the most important
    • 3) at least 400K different kinds & account for 20% of body weight
    • 4) long chains of organic molecules called amino acids
  15. Protein Function
    • 1) support
    • 2) movement
    • 3) transport
    • 4) buffering
    • 5) metabolic regulation
    • 6) coordination, communication, & control
    • 7) defense
  16. Amino Acid
    • 1) human body contains significant quantities of 20 that are the building blocks of proteins
    • 2) consist of a central carbon atom bonded to a hydrogen atom, an amino acid group
    • 3) name refers to the presence of the amino group & the carboxylic acid group, which all amino acids have in common
  17. Proton
    Subatomic particles that are contained in atoms. Similar size to neutrons and have a positive electrical charge.
  18. Hydroxide (OH-)
    When hydroxide ions (OH-) are plentiful hydrogen ions (H+) are more scarce making body pH high (more alkaline). Conversely when hydrogen ions (H+) are plentiful hydroxide ions (OH-) are more scarce making boyd pH low (more acidic).
  19. Acid
    Any substance that breaks apart in solution to release hydrogen ions.
  20. Base
    A substance that removes hydrogen ions from a solution.
  21. Buffer
    Compounds that stabilize pH by either removing or replacing hydrogen ions. (Antacids)
  22. Electron Shells
    They surround the nucleus & consist of electrons. The number of electrons in the outermost electron shell determines an atoms chemical properties.
  23. Ionic Bond
    Results from the attraction between ions--- atoms that have gained or lost electrons.
  24. Most Common Cations in Body Fluids
    • 1) Na+ (sodium)
    • 2) K+ (potassium)
    • 3) Ca2+ (calcium)
    • 4) Mg2+ (magnesium)
  25. Most Common Anions in Body Fluids
    • 1) CI- (chloride)
    • 2) HCO3 - (bicarbonate)
    • 3) HPO4 2- (biphosphate)
    • 4) SO4 2- (sulfate)"
  26. Covalent Bond
    Means atoms can fill their outer electron shells by sharing electrons with other atoms.
  27. Single Covalent Bond
    The sharing of one pair of electrons.
  28. Double Covalent Bond
    The sharing of two pair of electrons.
  29. Polar Covalent Bond
    An unequal sharing of electrons. Forms polar molecule and one atom has a slight negative charge while the other a slight positive charge.
  30. Metabolism
    Refers to all of the chemical reactions in the body.
  31. Chemical Reactions
    New chemical bonds form between atoms or existing bonds between atoms are broken to form different substances, or products.
  32. Catabolism
    Refers to the decomposition reactions of complex molecules within cells. When a covalent bond is broken it releases kinetic energy that can perform work.
  33. Anabolism
    Synthesis of new compounds in the body. Because it takes energy to create a chemical bond, anabolism is usually an "uphill" process. This energy is provided by catabolism.
  34. Activation Energy
    The amount of energy required to start a reaction.

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