Paleo test 3 Tarleton

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Paleo test 3 Tarleton
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Tarleton Paleo Test
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  1. What phylum do corals, jellyfish, and sea anemonies.
    Cnidarians
  2. What animals belong to the Phylum Cnidaria?
    Corals, Sea Anemonies, and Jellyfish.
  3. Cnidarians have well developed _______ but ________ organized.
    Tissues, Simply
  4. What are the general characteristics of Cnidarians?
    Multicellularity, Tentacles, Radial Symmetry, Have mesoderm between ectoderm and endoderm, Central Cavity joining mouth, Have digestive, muscular,nervous,reproductive, and elementary sensory, Do NOT have repiratory, excretory, or circulatory systems, Have Nemotocysts, A sexual and sexual reproduction, polymorphic, Chitcin or calcium phospate skeleton and are marine.
  5. ___________ are multicelluar with tentacles which surround the mouth.
    Cnidarians
  6. What do Cnidarians use their tentacles for?
    Food-grasping
  7. What kind of symmetry do Cnidarians have?
    Radial
  8. What kind of tissue grade construction do Cnidarians have?
    Mesoglea(connective tissue) separates the ectoderm and endoderm.
  9. What is mesoglea?
    Connective tissue in between the ectoderm and endoderm of Cnidarians.
  10. A Coelenteron is a ________.
    Central Cavity.
  11. Cnidarians Central Cavity is often _________by _________ ________ and _________.
    divided, radial folds, partitions
  12. What systems do Cnidarians posses?
    Digestive, Nervous, Reproductive, and Elementary Sensory
  13. Do Cnidarians have a nervous system?
    Yes
  14. Do Cnidarians have a Muscular system?
    yes
  15. Do Cnidarians have a sensory system?
    Yes but it is elementary.
  16. Do Cnidarians have a digestive system?
    Yes
  17. Do Cnidarians have a reproductive system?
    yes
  18. Do Cnidarians have a respiratory system?
    No.
  19. Do Cnidarians have an excretory system?
    No.
  20. Do Cnidarians have a Circulatory system/
    No.
  21. What are Nematocysts?
    Stinging Capusules.
  22. What phylum has nematocysts?
    Cnidarians.
  23. What do Cnidarians use nematocysts for?
    Food capture and defense.
  24. What type(s) of sexual reproduction do Cnidarians posses?
    Asexual and sexual.
  25. What happens when cnidarians reproduce asexually?
    They bud into solitary polyps or colonial polyps.
  26. What happens when Cnidarians reproduce sexually?
    They produce ciliated larvae (planula) which attach to bottom and form a polyp.
  27. What is polymorphism?
    When a species has to kind of body morph.
  28. What are the kinds of polymorphism foind in the Cnidarians?
    Medusoid and Polyp.
  29. In Class Hydrozoa ________ stages of polymorphism may occur or may have _______ stage only.
    both, medusoid.
  30. What kinds of skeleton material do Cnidarians posses?
    Chitin, Calcium Phosphate,Calcite, and Aragonite.
  31. Cnidarians are mostly ________.
    Marine.
  32. Hydrazoans are __________ and _______ _________.
    Stagehorn coral, siphonophores.
  33. Hydra are
    Marine?
    Freshwater?
    Both?
    Both marine and freshwater.
  34. What are the characteristics of Hydrazoans?
    They can be either solitary or colonial, their enteron lacks a gullet, most have chitinous skeletons(but some are calcerous), mostly marine but some fresh water, polyp and medusoid generations alternate.
  35. Are members of the Class Hydrozoa solitary, colonial, or both?
    Both.
  36. Are members of the class Hydrozoans marine, freshwater, or both?
    Both
  37. Do members of the Hydrozoans have chitinous, calcerous, or both kinds of skeletons?
    Both
  38. Members of __________ often alternate polyp and medusoid generations.
    Hydrozoa
  39. ___________ have enterons that lack gullets.
    Hydrozoans
  40. What Class lacks a gullet?
    Hydrozoans.
  41. Are Hydrozoans important as fossil markers?
    no
  42. What is the range of Hydrozoans?
    Late Proterozic to Recent
  43. Class Scyphozoa falls under what phyllum?
    Phylum Cnidaria.
  44. What are some of the biological characteristics of Scyphozoa?
    Solitary, have radial symmetry, Medusa stage dominate, Polyp forms lost, reduced, or highly modified, Coelenteron divided by mesenteries, living forms with separate sexes.
  45. Animals in class Scyphozoa have what kind of symmetry?
    Radial
  46. Class Scyhozoa are solitary, colonial, or both?
    Solitary
  47. Schphozoans are ___________ stage dominate.
    Medusa
  48. The Polyp form in _________ are greatly reduced, highly modified, or lost.
    Scyphozoa
  49. The Polyp forms in Scyphozoa are ________, _____, or ___________.
    reduced, highly modified, lost
  50. The Coelenteron in Scyphozoans is _____________________.
    divided by mesenteries.
  51. What are medenteries?
    Radially-arranged walls of tissue.
  52. What are the two subclasses of Scyphozoans?
    Scyphomedusae and Conulariida
  53. What animals of subclass Scyphomedusae make up?
    Jellyfish.
  54. What is some of the morphology of Subclass Scyphomedusea?
    True medusea= free floating forms, nectonic, hard parts lacking, marine only.
  55. Subclass Scyphomedusae is freshwater or marine?
    Marine
  56. What is the range of subclass scyphomedusae?
    Upper proterozoic to recent.
  57. What do subclass scuphomedusae lack?
    Hard parts
  58. Are subclass scyphomedusae nektonic or benthonic?
    nektonic
  59. Sub class Conulariida is also called ________ and _______.
    Conularids, conulatids.
  60. Conularids have ________ and ________ skeletons, ______ ________ form.
    chitin, calcium phosphate, elongated pyrmidal form.
  61. Subclass Conulariida is part of Class _______ and Phylum ______.
    Scypozoa, Cnidaria
  62. The paleoecology of conularids is ______ ______ _________ or_________.
    Marine sessile benthonic, nektonic.
  63. What lithology are Conularids most found in?
    Carbonacious shale.
  64. What is the range of Conularids?
    Middle Cambrian- Early Triassic.
  65. Class Anthozoa animals conisist of what animals?
    sea anemones, sea fans, corals, sea pens and sea feathers.
  66. Class Anthozoa falls under what Phylum?
    Cnidaria
  67. The Biological characteristics of Class Anthozoa are what?
    Solitary and Colonial, Polyps, Oral end bears tentacles, Has gullet, Partitioned mesentries, mineralized septa of aragoinite within and between mesentries.
  68. How do we classify Anthozoans?
    On whether mesenteries are paired or not.
  69. Subclass Zoantharia is under class _____ and Phylum ______.
    Anthozoa, Cnidaria
  70. Zoantharia includes what animals?
    Corals, sea anemonies, sea fans, sea pens, tabulate and rugose corals.
  71. How do we classify zoantherians?
    classification based on arragement and development of mesenteries and presence or absence of a skeleton.
  72. What are the characteristics of the Zoantharians?
    • can be both solitary and colonial
    • calcareous exoskeleton
    • paired(coupled) mesenteries
  73. Order Rugosa falls under Subclass _______, Class_______ and Phylum_______.
    Zoantharia, Anthozoa, Cnidaria.
  74. The biology of Rugosa is ____________________________.
    • Can be solitary or colonial
    • Calcareous exoskeletons called coralite with epitheca (calcareous wall)
    • septa and typically with tabulae and dissepiments
    • They have 6 primary septa that correspond to mesenteries. Secondary septa develop 4 to 6 intereptal spaces.
  75. Order Rugosa is also called ______.
    Tetracoralla
  76. In order rugosa corallites are ________ _________.
    Calcareous exoskeletons.
  77. In O.Rugosa the epithica is __ _______.
    Calcareous wall.
  78. In O. Rugosa the septa is __?
    radial plate from the wall to axis of corallite.
  79. In O. Rugosa, septa, typically come with tabulae. Tabulae are___________ __________.
    transverse partitions
  80. In O. Rugosa, there are dissepiments, which are?
    small curved plates forming a vessicle.
  81. In O. rugosa there are 6 ______ _______ called _________, that correspond to 6 paired ____________.
    primary septa, protosepta, mesenteries
  82. In O. Rugosa, ______ septa develop 4 to 6 _________ spaces.
    Secondary, interseptal
  83. The Paleoecology for O. Rugosa is ______ ________ _______.
    Marine sessile benthonic.
  84. O.Rugosa animals like to live in _______ , ____, _-_______ water with normal ______.
    Shallow, warm, well-oxigennated, salinity.
  85. O. Rugosa lives best in what kind of deposition?
    Slow (limestone beds.)
  86. The range of Rugosa is _______ -________/
    Ordovician- Permian.
  87. Order Tabulata is in Class ______ and Phylum __________.
    Anthozoa, Cnidaria
  88. O. Tabulata's biology is ____.
    • Colonial
    • Calcareous skeleton
    • have epithica and tabulae
    • septa are very small or absent
  89. The paleoecology of O.Tabulata is__.
    reef buliders, shallow, warm water, well-oxigentaed water, bottom free of silt.
  90. Range for O.Tabulata is _______-________.
    Ordovician- Permian.
  91. O. Scleractinia falls under class ________ and phylum _______ and subclass ________.
    Anthozoa, Cnidaria, Zoantharia.
  92. The morphology for Scleractinians is _.
    Septa in mutiples of 6.
  93. O. Scleractina is the _______ important modern ______ _________.
    most, reef buliders
  94. Scleractinians live in a symbiotic relationship with _________.
    Dinofallgallates(zooxanthellae)
  95. Scleractinians prefer what kinds of ecologies?
    Shallow water that is well-oxygenated, agitated, well-circulated water in a photic zone, prefer water that is 65F. And substrate free from silt.
  96. Bryozoans are also called ______ _______.
    Moss Animals
  97. Moss Animals are also called __________.
    Bryozoans.
  98. In Bryozoans zooids are ______.
    An Individual animal that consists of polypide (soft parts) and Zoarium(hard parts)
  99. In Bryozoans, Polypides are enclosed in a ___________ skeleton with an opening called a _______ or a ______ _______.
    Carbonate, orifice, zooecial aperture.
  100. In bryozoans the mouth leads to the _________ _______.
    Alimentary Canal.
  101. Bryozoans do not have what systems?
    Repiritory and circulatory.
  102. Polymorphism in Bryozoans occurs how?
    Becuse of the many specialied zooids in diffrent groups.
  103. In Bryozoans colonies usually have what kind of reproduction?
    Hemaphroditic.
  104. Bryozoans that sexually reproduce do it how?
    Produce a larva, which settles into substrate then in a few hours metmophoses into a zooid.
  105. Colonial reproduction in bryozoans happens how?
    Asexual budding of daughter zooids.
  106. The skeleton of bryozoans is mostly _________, _____ and ______.
    Calcite, Cacite and aragonite.
  107. Amalgamate structure is?
    Wall of adjacent tubes in bryozoans coalseced.
  108. in bryozoans, intergrate structure means ______?
    Tube walls of zooecim are distinct from other zooecium walls.
  109. What is an Acanthopore?
    slender dense- walled tube.
  110. What is a Zooecium and what is another name for it?
    A zooecium is a large tube or chamber occupied by one of main zooids. Another name for zooecium is autopore.
  111. What is a mesopore//.
    A tube parralle to autopores.
  112. What kind of zooid occupies a mesopore?
    Specialized zooid.
  113. What is a Cystiphram?
    A calcareous plate extending from zooecial wall part way across tube, surface coned, convex upward and inward.
  114. What is a diaphram?
    A calcareous plate extending transversley across width of zooecial tube, surface flat or gently curved.
  115. What is a Coenosteum(coen)?
    vesicular or dense skeletal material between zooecia.
  116. Class Stenolamenta is classified by ____.
    • zooecia cylindrical with calcifed body wall
    • division of septa produces new zooecia through budding
  117. C. Stenolamenta's range is ______-_______.
    Ordovician- Recent.
  118. C. stenolamenta falls under what phylum?
    Bryozoan.
  119. O. Tubuliporata is also called_______.
    Cyclostomata
  120. O. Tubulitporta falls under class _________ and phylum ________.
    Stenolamenta, Bryozoa
  121. O. Tubliporata characteristics are______.
    Calcareous tubular chamber with lidless circular aperture.
  122. The Range of O.Tubuliporata is ______-________.
    Early Ordovician- Recent.
  123. O. Cryptostomata falls under class________ and Phylum ________.
    Stenolamenta, Bryozoa
  124. The charactistics of O. Cryptostomata are _____.
    • short calcareous tube
    • colony perpheral walls are thick
  125. Range of O. Cryptostomata is _____-_______.
    Ordocician- Permian
  126. O cystoporata is also called _____.
    Fistuliporids.
  127. Order cystoporata falls under class _______ and phylum ________.
    Stenolaemata, Bryozoa
  128. Characteristics of O. cystoporata are?
    tubular zooecia isolated by cystose tissue.
  129. Range of cystoporata is _______-________.
    Ordovician_ triassic.
  130. O. Trepostomata falls under class _______ and Phylum ________.
    Stenolaemata, Bryozoa
  131. O. Fenestrata falls under class _______ and phylum ______.
    Stenolaemata, Bryozoa.
  132. O. Fenestata is also called _________ or _________.
    Fenestrates, Fenestellids.
  133. O. Fenestrata is charateriszed by ________.
    Sheets pirced by holes.
  134. The range of Fenestrata is _____-_______.
    Ordovician-triassic.
  135. O. Trepostomata's characteristics are __.
    Long curved calcareous tube usually intersected by partitions.
  136. O. Trepostmata's range is ______-______/
    Ordovician- Triassic.
  137. Class Phylactolaemata falls under what phylum?
    Bryozoa
  138. C. Phylactoaemata is characterized by ______.
    non-calcareous body wall, fresh water
  139. C.Phylactoaemata's range is _______-________.
    Late tertiary- recent
  140. Is C. Phylactoaemata's fossils record usable?
    No.
  141. Class gymnolaemata falls under what phylum?
    Bryozoa
  142. C. Gymnoaemata charateristics are ______.
    • Marine,
    • Circular row of tentecles around the mouth,
    • has complex form with clacified zooids, skeletons are often both aragonite and calcite layers.
  143. C. Gymnoaemata' s skeletons are usually _______ and _______.
    Aragonite and calcite.
  144. Class. Gymnolaemata is the ________ successful group of _________ bryozoans.
    most, modern.
  145. C. Gymnoaemata's range is ______-_______.
    Ordovician -recent.
  146. O.Ctenostomata falls under what class and phylum?
    C.Gymnoaemata, Bryozoa.
  147. O.Ctenostomata is characterized by ___________.
    • zooids enclosed in a gelationus chamber
    • conb-like processes close aperture when tentacles are retracted.
  148. O.Ctentostomata's fossils consits of what/
    Chemical borings produced by soft-bodied colonies within calcareous substrates.
  149. O. Ctentostomata's range is ____-_____.
    Ordovician- Recent.
  150. O. Cheilostomata falls under class ______ and phylum_______.
    C.Gymoaemata, Bryozoa.
  151. O.Cheilostomata's characteristics are_.
    • zooids enclosed in a short saclike chitionous or calcarous chamber
    • hinged chitionous operculum (lid) encloses aperture when tentacles are retracted.
  152. O. Cheliostomata's range is ______-_______.
    Jurassic- Recent.
  153. bryozoan ecology is _________ _________ __________.
  154. Marine sessile benthonic
  155. Bryozoan Lithology is ________.
    In most cases calcareous rocks . Rare in blk. shales, doomites and quartzrose clastic rocks.
  156. Bryozoan biotic association consists of _.
    Paleozoc Most sessile benthonic organisms.
  157. Bryozoans are found sediments of _______ _______ and around ______ ______.
    Continental shelves and coral reefs.
  158. Are bryozoans useful in biostrtigraphy?
    Yes, because they are wide spread and have rapid evolution.
  159. Phylum Brachiopoda consists of _______________.
    Lophophore-bearing marine coelomates.
  160. In brachiopods, a lophophore is _______.
    Complex ciliated, feeding organ surroinding the mouth; consists of pair of coiled arms(brachia) with ciliated, tentacle-like cirri.
  161. In brachiopods, the mantle is _______.
    Two folds of body wall that line the inner surfave of the valves; outer fold secretes shell and inner fold separates 2 cavities.
  162. In brachiopods, cavities are _______.
    Body (coelomic) cavity in posterior 1/3 of shell; main body occupies body cavity. Mantle cavity occupies anterior 2/3 of shell' largely occupied by lophphore suspended between mantles.
  163. In brachiopods, the digestive system _______.
    articulates intestine with blind terminus (fecal pellets voided through mouth); Inarticulates with anus
  164. In brachiopods, there are primative ______ and _______.
    Circulatory and nervous systems.
  165. In brachiopods, articulates, the muscle system consists of _________.
    • Diductor to open valve
    • Adductor to close valve
    • Pedicle(muscular) attachment
  166. In brachiopods, inarticulate, have muscular system that ______________.
    1-2 adductors to close valves and three pairs of oblique muscles.
  167. In brachiopods, muscle scar morphology is important in ______________ .
    Brachiopod taxonomy.
  168. In brachiopods, the reproductive cycle _______________________.
    the sexes are seperate . Commonly with free seimming larval stage whose head attaches to bottom to form benthonic adult form.
  169. In brachiopods, are __________ symmetrical.
    Bilaterally
  170. In brachiopods, the valves are ________.
    Unequal.
  171. In brachiopods, bivalved has several different characteristics such as ______/
    Dorsal, Ventral, Valves Hinged in articulates and unhinged in inarticulates.
  172. In brachiopods, what is the dorsal brachial valve ________.
    Contains lophophore.
  173. In brachiopods, the ventral (pedical) valve is __________.
    Larver valve which has muscular pedical at posterior end.
  174. In brachiopods, the articulates have _____ valves.
    Hinged
  175. In brachiopods, the inarticulates have __________ valves.
    Unhinged.
  176. In brachiopods, the articulates have a foramen which is ________/
    pedicle opening.
  177. In brachiopods, the articulates have a beak which is _______.
    pointed extermity of valve where shell growth begins.
  178. In brachiopods, the articulates have a commissure which is ___.
    Junction between the edges of valves.
  179. In brachiopods, the articulates have a Hinge line which is _______.
    the edge of shell where valve articulate.
  180. In brachiopods, the articulates have Cardinal extremity which is ________.
    the lateral terminus of hinge line.
  181. In brachiopods, the articulates have a beak ridge which is _______/
    a ridge extending from beak to cardianl extraminty.
  182. In brachiopods, the articulates have a Delthyrium which is a __________.
    opening in pedicle valve adjacent to hinge line; serves for passage of pedicle.
  183. In brachiopods, the articulates have a fold which is _______?
    elevation (up arch) of a valve ( usually on brachial valve) along the midline.
  184. In brachiopods, the articulates have a sulcus which is a ____________.
    a depression of a valve along the midline (usually on pedicle valve.)
  185. In brachiopods, the artuculates have a plucaiton(plica) which is _____?
    the radial ridges and depressions involoving entire thichness of shell.
  186. In brachiopods, the articulates have a umbo which is ______.
    a relativly convex portion of valve next to beak.
  187. In brachiopods, the articulates have a Interarea which is a _______________.
    plane or curved surface between beak and hinge line on either valve.
  188. Class Inarticullata falls under the phylum _______.
    Brachiopoda
  189. Charateristic for C. Inarticulata include ________.
    • A shell of chitin or calcareous
    • Shell puncate
    • impuncate
    • valves never articulated by teeth or sockets
    • muscles and body wall hold valves together
    • attachment by pedicle or no attachment.
  190. The range of inarticulates is ______-______/
    Lower Cambrian- recent.
  191. O. Lingulida falls under what class and Phylum?
    Inarticulata, Brachiopoda.
  192. O. Lingulida charateristics are _________.
    • Shells promarliy compsed of calcium phosphate,
    • shells are bio convex,
    • Shells are oval to squarish in outline.
  193. O. Lingulida lived like _______.
    Burrowed in the soft sediment where they were anchored by their long pedicle.
  194. O. Lingulida ranges from _______-_________.
    Cambrian - recent.
  195. O. Acrotedia falls under the class _______ and Phylum ______.
    Inarticulata, Brachiopoda.
  196. O. Acrotredia range is _______-________/
    Cambrian to recent
  197. O. Acrotredia's characteristics are ______.
    Shells generally subcircular, enequally biconvex and often have a pedical opening.
  198. O. Obolellida falls under class ______ and Phylum ___.
    Inarticulata, Brachipoda.
  199. O. Obolellida's range is ____.
    Cambrian only.
  200. O,Obolelliida characteristics are________.
    valves circular to oval, ventral valve with psuedo- interarea and with pedicle opening.
  201. Class Articulata falls under phylum__.
    Brachipoda.
  202. Class Articulata's characteristics _____?
    • shell is calcareous punctate, inpunctate or pseudopunctate.
    • Cavles articulated by hinge teeth and sockets.
  203. C. Articulata ranges from _-_.
    Lower Cambrian - recent
  204. Punctuate is _.
    perforated by fine tubes or pores from interior to almost the outer surface.
  205. Impunctate is when_____/
    the shell has solid layers.
  206. Pseudopunctate is when __.
    the shell lacks pores but fibrous layer with rod-like calcite.
  207. O.Orthida characteristics are __.
    • Unequally bi convex shells iwth radial ribs (costae)
    • relatively wide stright hinge lines and with interareas on both vavles .
    • shell can be impunctate.
  208. O. Orthida ranges from ___-__.
    Cambrian - upper permian.
  209. O. Orthida falls under class _____ and phylum _____
    Articulata, Brachiopoda
  210. O. Sterophomenida is characterized by _.
    • plano=conves to concave-convex.
    • Interareas highly vaiable, hige line tpically ong
    • pedical opening reduced or absent. typically pseudopunctate.
  211. O. Sterophmenida range from _.
    Ordovician -triassic.
  212. O. strophomenida falls under class_____ and Phylum_______.
    Articulata, Brachiopoda
  213. Suborder Strophomenidina is also called _.
    Strophomenacaes
  214. The characteristics of SO. Strophomenidina are_.
    interarea is well developed on one or both valves, pedical formen very minute or lacking
  215. Suborder Productinia is also called_.
    (produtacea)
  216. The charateristic of suborder productina are _/
    interarea reduced or lacking, spines disrtibuted all over shell surface.
  217. In Articulated byrozoans under border Strphomenidia The difference between suborder strophomenidins and Productindina is __.
    Strophomenidina has a well developed interarea witha small pedicle. Productindina has a reduced or lacking interarea with spines all over the shell surface.
  218. Order Pentameridia characteristcs include_.
    Strongly biconvex valves, that are smooth or finely costate, with robust pedicle spondylum, open delthyrium Impuncatate shell, small interareas and a short to moderatley long hingeline.
  219. Order Pentamerida is under class and pHylum?
    Articulata, Brachiopoda.
  220. Order Rhynchoneliida charachertistics are -.
    shell is biconvex, interareas, pedicle , and hinge length highly variable, punctate or impuntate, spiral brachidium.
  221. Order Rhynchoneliida class and phylum is?
    Articulata, Brachiopods.
  222. O. Spiriferida characteristics are ___.
    shell is biconvex, interareas, pedicle and hinge length highly variable, puntate or impunctate, sprial brachidium points toward cardinal extermities.
  223. O. spriiferdia falls under class and phylum?
    Articulata, Brachiopods.
  224. Suborder Spiriferidina characteristics are _
    Impunctate shells, long lines, surfaces marked by ribs and plications.
  225. Order terebratulida characteristics are__.
    biconvex shells with short hinge line, shell surface smooth or finely costate, interarea on pedicle valve only, puntate, functional pedical, complex looped brachidium.
  226. Brachiopods lived in _
    Marine benthoic epifaunal and gregarious.
  227. Beachiopods eat _______-______.
    Diatoms and Dinoflagellares
  228. Brachiopods live in a water depth of ____/
    Shallow Continental shelf forms
  229. The ditribution of brachiopods is ___.
    Cosmopolitan
  230. Brachiopods prefer _____ salinty and ______ substrates.
    normal hard.
  231. Fossil Brachiopods attached to substrate how?
    Pedicle, shell atrophies, leaves shell on substrate. Attached by cementation to hard substrates.
  232. Phylum Annelida are ______.
    segmented worms, including earthworms (oligochaeta) leeches(Hirudinea), and bristleworms(polycheata)
  233. Annelid biology is_____.
    Ringlike similar segements and with sementation of internal structures including nerves, muscles, circ, and excretoy, reproductive.
  234. Ichnology is -.
    the stufy of trace fossils.
  235. Trace fossils are____.
    ichnofossils, lebensspuren, tracks, trails, and burrows of organisims.
  236. Ichnogenus is-
    mrphological type of trace fossil. (refletcs enviroment not creator.)
  237. Ichnofacies are-.
    correlation between depositional environments and trace fossil assymbleges.
  238. Trace fossil are useful due to .
    • long time range
    • narrow facies range
    • no secondary transport.
    • Trace fossils usually in environments that are hostil to fossils.
    • nor usually aggected b diagenesis
    • Sedimentological uses
  239. Depostie feeder traces useually come from what kind of substrate?
    Silty an muddy
  240. Suspension feeder traces usually come from what substrate?
    Clean, well sorted sediments
  241. Soft substrates are good for preserving what trype of ichnofossil form.
    Softbody forms.

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