Chapter 45

Card Set Information

Author:
mse263
ID:
78792
Filename:
Chapter 45
Updated:
2011-04-14 13:10:51
Tags:
Bio II
Folders:

Description:
Midterm II
Show Answers:

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview

The flashcards below were created by user mse263 on FreezingBlue Flashcards. What would you like to do?


  1. neurohormone
    any hormone produced and released by neurons; ex: Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH, Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), Adrenocorticotropin-releasing hormone, Oxytocin, Antidiuretic hormone (ADH), Epinephrine
  2. neurons & neurotransmitters
    the nervous system is fast, localized, and short in duration; used for BOTH voluntary & involuntary functions
  3. endocrine glands & hormones
    endocrine system is slower, can be widespread, and lasts for a long duration because molecules aren't broken down right away; used ONLY for involuntary activity
  4. autocrine signals
    form of signaling in which a cell secretes a hormone or chemical messenger that binds to autocrine receptors on the same cell
  5. lipid soluble hormones
    steroid hormones and iodine-containing hormones of the thyroid gland; can diffuse through membranes and reach receptors located IN target cells (receptors are usually in cytoplasm or nucleus); made by adrenal glands and gonads; some local regulators (small molecules); work by activating genes/transcription
  6. water soluble hormones
    polypeptide, protein, and most amino acid hormones (neurotransmitters, neurohormones, and some local regulators) bind to a receptor protein on the plasma membrane of the cell which triggers ion channel openings and the production of a second messengers (cAMP or IP3)
  7. solubility effects how hormones work:
    hormone can be the same, as can be the receptor, but organ response can be different; ex. epinephrine causes blood vesseles of skeletal muscles to dilate, but intestinal blood vessel to constrict
  8. Endocrine Sytem consists of:
    ductless glands; they don’t have tube connecting/conducting the hormones to some surface; control long term functions and responses, like metabolism, growth, reproduction
  9. tropic hormone
    hormones that target other endocrine glands; most are produced/secreted by the anterior pituitary; include TSH, ACTH/corticotropin, LH, FSH, and GH (both tropic and non-tropic)
  10. posterior pituitary (neurohypophysis)
    extension of the hypothalamus (connected to it by neurons); stores and secretes ADH (vasopressin, anti-diuretic hormone) and oxytocin, both neurohormones made by the hypothalamus
  11. anterior pituitary (adenohypophysis)
    regulated BY hormones released by the hypothalamus; tropic hormones: TSH/thyrotropin, ACTH, Gonadotropins (GN), FSH, & luteinizing hormone (LH); Non-tropic hormones: Growth hormone, & prolactin
  12. oxytocin
    peptide regulated by the nervous system that stimulates the contraction of the uterus/mammary gland cells; comes from posterior pituitary
  13. Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
    peptide regulated by water/salt balance that promotes retention of water by kidneys!; comes from posterior pituitary
  14. Growth hormone (GH)
    protein hormone regulated by hypothalamic hormones that stimulates growth (especially bones) and metabollic functions; comes form anterior pituitary
  15. Prolactin (PRL)
    protein hormone regulated by hypothalamic hormones that stimulates milk production and secretion; comes from anterior pituitary
  16. FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone)
    glycoprotein hormone controlled by hypothalamic hormones that stimulates the production of ova and sperm; comes from anterior pituitary
  17. LH (luteinizing hormone)
    glycoprotein hormone controlled by hypothalamic hormones that stimulates the the ovaries and testes; comes from anterior pituitary
  18. TSH (thyroid-stimulating hormone)
    glycoprotein hormone controlled by hypothalamic hormones that stimulate the thyroid glands; comes from anterior pituitary
  19. ACTH (adrenocorticotropic hormone)
    peptide hormone controlled by hypothalamic that stimulates the adrenal cortex to secrete gluco and mineralocorticoids; comes from anterior pituitary
  20. thyroxine (T4)
    amine hormone regulated by TSH that stimulates and maintains metabolic processes; made by the thyroid gland
  21. calcitonin
    peptide hormone regulated by calcium in blood that LOWERS the blood calcium level; secreted by the thyroid gland
  22. PTH (parathyroid hormone)
    peptide hormone controlled by calcium in the blood that RAISES blood calcium level; secreted by the parathyroid gland
  23. insulin
    protein hormone regulated by glucose in the blood that LOWERS blood glucose levels (aka produces glucose storage as glycogen in liver and muscle cells); secreted by the pancreas
  24. glucagon
    protein hormone regulated by glucose in the blood that RAISES blood glucose levels (aka breaks down glycogen in muscle/liver cells); secreted by the pancreas
  25. epinephrine/norepinephrine
    amines that are regulated by the nervous system that RAISE blood glucose level, increase metaboic activities, but constrict intestinal blood vessels; secreted by the adrenal medulla
  26. glucocorticoids/mineralcorticoids
    steroid hormones that are controled by ACTH and K+ in blood/angoitensin II individually; raise blood glucose level and promotes reabsorption of Na+ and excretion of K+ in kidneys secreted by adrenal cortex
  27. androgens
    steroid hormone that is regulated by FSH and LH that supports sperm formation; promote development and maintenance of male secondary sex characteristics
  28. estrogens
    steroid hormone that is regulated by FSH and LH that stimulate uterine lining; promote development and maintenance of gemale secondary sex characteristics; secreted by the ovaries
  29. progestins
    steroid hormone that is regulated by FSH and LH that promote uterine lining growth
  30. melatonin
    amine hormone regulated by light/dark cycles; involved in biological rhythms; secreted by the pineal gland
  31. Type 1 diabetes
    autoimmune disorder where the immune system destroys the beta cells of the pancreas and therefore a person's ability to make insulin; treatment = insulin injections
  32. Type 2 diabetes
    failure of target cells to respond normally to insulin

What would you like to do?

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview