ANTH2500Ex3 R1

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purplerubycrystal
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ANTH2500Ex3 R1
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2011-04-11 13:15:40
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ANTH2500Ex3 R1
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ANTH2500Ex3 R1
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  1. How is scientific time measured? 2
    • in years B.P. (before present)
    • present is 1950 (the dawn of radiocarbon dating)
  2. What techniques are used to measure time? 2
    • relative dating
    • absolute dating
  3. relative dating 3
    • Index fossils
    • time markers (index artifacts)
    • seriation
  4. William Smith 4
    • 1729
    • first geologic map
    • index fossil concept
  5. enables archeologists to characterize and date strata within sites using distinctive artifact forms that research shows to be disgnostic of a particular period of time.
    index fossil concept
  6. the godfather pf radiometric dating 3
    • William Libby
    • radiocarbon dating
    • 1949
  7. 2 major forms of radiometric dating/
    materials (not radiocarbon dating)
    • Potassium-Argon dating
    • Argon-Argon dating
    • igneous rock; volcanic ash
  8. best material for carbon 14 dating?
    charcoal
  9. when organisms take in carbon from source that is depleated of or enriched in C-14 relative to the atmosphere; carbon dating of such samples may return ages that are conciderably older or younger than they actually are.
    resovior effect
  10. snails eat old carbon from limestone and loo older on radiocarbon test; ocean is a source of; ancillary dating problems on skeletons of seafood eating creatures due to the...
    reservior effect
  11. 3 trapped charge dating processes?/materials
    • Thermoluminescence (TL)/quartz/feldspar;ceramics
    • Optically Stimulated thermoluminescence(OSL)/sedimants; dirt
    • Electron spin resonance (ESR)/hydroxapatite; tooth enamel
  12. counts electrons trapped in crystalline mineral lattice since "clock" was last reset
    underlying principal of trapped charge dating
  13. empties the "electron traps"
    • heat
    • light
    • radiation
  14. alters electrons energy state, getting them "trapped"
    background gamma radiation
  15. Archeological classification is based on? 5
    • (typology)
    • type
    • stlye
    • function
    • technology
    • variation
  16. Archeology is about..
    patterns in artifacts thorugh space and time
  17. How was Qafzeh dated?
    materials?
    where?
    Significance?
    • Electron spin resonance (ESR)
    • teeth and stone of Neanderthels
    • Isreal
    • showed humans and Neands. co-existed for over 60,000 years
  18. a morphological type that has temporal significance; also known as a time marker or index fossil
    temporal type
  19. clas of artifacts that performed the same function; these may not be temporal and/or morphological types.
    can cross-cut temporal boundaires
    • functional type
    • (function)
  20. time periods
    • Paleoindian pre-8500BP
    • Early archaic 8500-6000BP
    • Middle archaic 6000-3500BP
    • Late Archaic 3500-1250BP
    • Late Prehistoric I 1250-750BP
    • Late Prehistoric II 750-250 BP
  21. time periods and Eras
    • Paleoindian-Terminal Plistocene
    • Early Archaic- Holoscene
    • Middle Archaic- Middle Holoscene
    • Late Archaic to Present- (Late Holoscene?)
  22. Paleoindian Period points
    • (long points)
    • Clovis
    • Dalton
    • Plainview
    • Golondrine
  23. oldest defined cultural group in America
    Clovis
  24. most common paleoindian points?
    age?
    who used?
    • Plainview and Dalton
    • 10,000 years
    • woodland people
  25. deer hunting paleoindian point?
    Bison point?
    • Dalton
    • Plainview
  26. Early Archaic (Holoscene) Points (group name)
    early split stemmed
  27. Middle Archaic (Middle Holoscene) points ? 2
    where?
    • Clalf Creek; Carrolton
    • Andice; Bell
  28. Middle Holosene conditions?
    activities?
    how common are sites? 4
    • 2500 year drought
    • population plumet
    • People went south to springs
    • rare
  29. where is the group that is older than Clovis?
    how much older?
    • South America
    • 1000 years
  30. Late Archaic point?
    Gary
  31. Late Archaic conditions?
    ecology?
    activities?
    5
    • wetter
    • cross timbers
    • territorialism
    • population increase
    • settled floodplains
  32. Late Prehistoric I points? 3
    Late Prehistroic II points? 4
    Activities? 2
    Technology? 2
    • Scallorn; Steiner; Alba
    • Perdiz; Fresno; Washita; Herrell
    • war; fortification
    • bow and arrow; quiver (volume) of arrows
  33. Late archaic dart point?
    Gary
  34. serated edged Late prehistoric point
    steiner

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