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How is scientific time measured? 2
- in years B.P. (before present)
- present is 1950 (the dawn of radiocarbon dating)
What techniques are used to measure time? 2
- relative dating
- absolute dating
relative dating 3
- Index fossils
- time markers (index artifacts)
William Smith 4
- first geologic map
- index fossil concept
enables archeologists to characterize and date strata within sites using distinctive artifact forms that research shows to be disgnostic of a particular period of time.
index fossil concept
the godfather pf radiometric dating 3
- William Libby
- radiocarbon dating
2 major forms of radiometric dating/
materials (not radiocarbon dating)
- Potassium-Argon dating
- Argon-Argon dating
- igneous rock; volcanic ash
best material for carbon 14 dating?
when organisms take in carbon from source that is depleated of or enriched in C-14 relative to the atmosphere; carbon dating of such samples may return ages that are conciderably older or younger than they actually are.
snails eat old carbon from limestone and loo older on radiocarbon test; ocean is a source of; ancillary dating problems on skeletons of seafood eating creatures due to the...
3 trapped charge dating processes?/materials
- Thermoluminescence (TL)/quartz/feldspar;ceramics
- Optically Stimulated thermoluminescence(OSL)/sedimants; dirt
- Electron spin resonance (ESR)/hydroxapatite; tooth enamel
counts electrons trapped in crystalline mineral lattice since "clock" was last reset
underlying principal of trapped charge dating
empties the "electron traps"
alters electrons energy state, getting them "trapped"
background gamma radiation
Archeological classification is based on? 5
Archeology is about..
patterns in artifacts thorugh space and time
How was Qafzeh dated?
- Electron spin resonance (ESR)
- teeth and stone of Neanderthels
- showed humans and Neands. co-existed for over 60,000 years
a morphological type that has temporal significance; also known as a time marker or index fossil
clas of artifacts that performed the same function; these may not be temporal and/or morphological types.
can cross-cut temporal boundaires
- functional type
- Paleoindian pre-8500BP
- Early archaic 8500-6000BP
- Middle archaic 6000-3500BP
- Late Archaic 3500-1250BP
- Late Prehistoric I 1250-750BP
- Late Prehistoric II 750-250 BP
time periods and Eras
- Paleoindian-Terminal Plistocene
- Early Archaic- Holoscene
- Middle Archaic- Middle Holoscene
- Late Archaic to Present- (Late Holoscene?)
Paleoindian Period points
- (long points)
oldest defined cultural group in America
most common paleoindian points?
- Plainview and Dalton
- 10,000 years
- woodland people
deer hunting paleoindian point?
Early Archaic (Holoscene) Points (group name)
early split stemmed
Middle Archaic (Middle Holoscene) points ? 2
- Clalf Creek; Carrolton
- Andice; Bell
Middle Holosene conditions?
how common are sites? 4
- 2500 year drought
- population plumet
- People went south to springs
where is the group that is older than Clovis?
how much older?
Late Archaic conditions?
- cross timbers
- population increase
- settled floodplains
Late Prehistoric I points? 3
Late Prehistroic II points? 4
- Scallorn; Steiner; Alba
- Perdiz; Fresno; Washita; Herrell
- war; fortification
- bow and arrow; quiver (volume) of arrows
Late archaic dart point?
serated edged Late prehistoric point