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Catholic Holy Roman Empire, fought against protestantism
Frederick the Wise
Protected Luther, became a champion of protestantism for his want to protect Luther in order to make surehe had a fair hearing.
Protestantism, his 95 thesis started the reformation. German protestantism seperated fromteh Church as the Catholic Church needed reform, but would not really listen to Luther's proposals
Originally given the title, "Defender of the Faith", Henry ended up seperating from the Catholic church after implementing policies putting him as the head of the church in england. Essentially founding the Anglican Church.
- French king who repeatedly changed his religion to aid in order to save his life or achieve his political goals.
- Asassinated by fanatic Ravaillac May 14, 1610.
- Thirty Years War
- Fought in Germany, during which many princes used religion to further their political agendas.
Peace of Augsburg
Put an end toreligious wars in Germany in 116th Century, did not last (feudal lords allowed tochoose religion of their areas as long as didnt try to spread protestantism), Charles V and SChemaldic League. Included only Protestants who signed the treaty, others (calvinists, etc) not included, still considered heretics
Stipulation of the Peace of Augsberg saying that even if Bishop of a territory became Prot. the territory would remain Catholic, essentially making the Peace of Augsburg nothing more than a armistace.
Emperor in 1576, Germany. Not trusted by Prot b/c Jesuit trained in spain. Peaceful for 30 years, then protestant/Catholic clashes forced him to abdicate in 1606
Of Bavaria, brought troops to Donauworth to convert by force to catholicism this area which had elected for protestantism (1607)
Protestants in germany band together in 1608, in response to Duke Maximilian's actions in Donauworth. This leads to the Catholic League being formed in response. Did not include all protestant movements so it would have been crushed.
Catholics banding together in 1608 in Germany, in response to the Evangelical Union being formed, this is the setting for the start of the 30 years war.
In germany, this was an area that was declared for Catholicism. It was the ancient land of the Hussites, who aligned with protestants (reformed), and German Calvinist immigrants made the majority of the population there protestant, thus "heretical" in the region. This situation led to the abdication of Rudolf, and ultumately the defenestration of prague (the official start of the thirt years war).
Defenestration of Prague
In Bohemia, a catholic area where the subjects were majority protestant, the German Emperor Ferdinand who took over after Rudolf II and Matthias were forced to abdicatem tried to force catholic policies in the region. The German council supported this despite bohemian protests, so Bohemian Protestant REvolt, which culminated in them throwing two of the kings advisors out of a window (into a garbage pile, thus the name). This starts teh THirty YEars War.
Bohemian Phase of 30 years war
The Bohemians after teh definistration, call for Frederick to be their king. He was the Palatianate ruler, two terrritories over, and was reformed. This spread rebellion into the intervening territories. (Silesia and Moravia). This leads Ferdinand to call for Baravia Catholic league (Led by Maximilian) to invade Bohemia.They kicked butt in bohemia, and Frederick was deposed of both Palatianate and Bohemia, Macimilian was given the palatianate so persecution of prots in Bohemia and Palatianate.This was so bloody, by end of thirty years war, population in Bohemia reduced by 4/5.
30 years war, Danish Phase
- The election of Maximilian, a hapsburg, concerned England, Netherlands and Denmark, so they joined in aid to Protestant League, in order to invade Germany and restore Frederick (Son in Law of James 1 of england). This was supported by several protestant princes, and some catholic ones who opposed the Hapsburgs. Meanwhile Ferdinand of Spain raised an army of his own (under command of Albert of Wallenstein).
- So, 2 Catholic league armies in Germany, Alberts and Maximilians when Denmark invades (Christian V). ->Treaty of Lubeck after much fighting. DAnes withdraw, and many more forced conversions to Catholicism follow (score 2, Catholics)
- Put in charge of an army raised by Ferdinand II, during the 30 years war, stage II.Ferdinand disbands his army at end of Stage II because he fears Wallenstein.
- Ferdinand brings him back in during stage 3, but his army defeated, and he is murdered because secretly negotiatin with protestants.
1611, inherits the swedish throne. Reunites Sweden and expells danes.Lutheran, and concerned that Hapsburgs wanted to take sweden, he intervened in Germany during 30 years war.
30 Year War, Swedish Phase- Final Phase
- Adolphus inherits Swede throne and intervenes in Germany (1630). Ferdinand had dismantled Wallenstein's army, so Catholic League-led army in opposition.Adolphus wins many victories, and the support of Protestant princes, his troops treated the native Germans with kindness and respect, did not force conversions in conquered areas. France gave him $$ support, he accepted under condition that no german territories become french,.
- Catholic League takes Magdenburg and massacred its citizens. Then marched on Swedish armies, the League was defeated, Adolphus marches on Bavaria in southern GE, heart of Cath League.
- By now many cath. princes calling for peace and toleration. Willing to agree to Bohemia restoration to rights, Frederick return to Palatianate, Expulsion of Jesuits.
30years war stage III, return of Wallenstein
- Catholic league fails, so Ferdinand II brings back in Wallenstein. He attacks Prague, and joins remains of Catholic League army. They fight in Lutzen, Wallenstein army is crushed, but Adolphus is killed.
- So, war degenerates into skirmishes and banditry. And of course, negotiations. Wallenstien was negotiating with France Swedes, and German Prots, so Ferdinand has him murdered. France and Spanish Hapsburgs fight. By this time Germany doesnt care much, wants peace.
Peace of Westphalia
- Ends 30 years war. Death of Ferdinand II in 1637, leads to Ferdinand III who wants toleration. Germany wants peace, France saw the greatest possible gains, Sweden was redy to withdraw.
- So, in 1648 peace of Westphalia signed, ends war.FRance and Sweden gain territories. German princes given greater powers, declared that all princes and subjects have freedom to follow own (christian) religion.
- The toleration was because of a growing indifference in religious matters. War showed results of religious matters being resolved by war. Marks beginning of Modern Secular state where politics not guiding factor, rather, self interest.
- Holland & Switzerland recognized as independant states
- lutheranism and Calvinism become recognized religions.
Edict of Nantes
Ends war of the three henry's in France, Henry the 4th becomes catholic to ease way to throne (France is worth a Mass). This edict grants the Huguenots freedom of worship. Most importantly, grants them several fortified cities., which means they can rebel if their rights are violated.
King of France after death of Henry IV, he is only 8 at that time so really ruled by mother, Marie de Medici.
Marie de Medici
- Power behind Louis XIII. Surrounds herself with italian advisors who do not understand france, ratrher are tied to Hapsburgs of Spain, who hate protestantism.
- Betroths Louis XIII to spain princess Anne of Austria. This provokes uprising of Huguenots who fear this will lead to dissolution of Edict of Nantes.
- becomes king Louis XIII's advisor when MEdici's influence begins to wain (around 1622). Sought aggrandizement of french crown and to increase his own power.
- His policies were not based on theology, rather calculating convenience. This why it was under him that he supported protestants against the hapsburgs during 30 years war financially. He fought Huguenot party in france.
- Centralizing policies cannot bear huguenot power.
- Once he takes theri cities, he issues edict of toleration for the huguenots in rel. and civil matters. and turned attention to huguenots. Dies in 1642, along with king in 1643.
Siege of La Rochelle
- Richelieu seeks to destroy huguenots, so sieges their main stronghold. Lasts a year. of 25000, only 1500 survive. French caotholics go in and celebrate mass.
- This leads to other uprisengs that are quelled with policies of extermination by french army.
Louis XIV king after XIII, immediately after richeleui's death. is 5 years old. Jules Mazarin continued Richelieu's policies. Mazarin dies in 1642.
- after mazarin dies, refuses to name successor to cardinal. "The Sun King" wants power to himself. Clashed with the pope, but also wanted to stamp out French Protestantism.Tries to convert protestants to unify france.
- First attempts to persuade, then buy conversions. Then by persecution. using the french army in 1648. Issues Edict of Fountainebleau abolishing provisions of Edict of Nantes --leads to mass exodus including arisans and theologians possibly leading to economic hurts that lead to French Revolution.
Edict of Fontainbleau
Abolished Edict of Nantes. Given by Louis XIV. Means officially there are no more protestants in france. Leads to "Christians of the Desert"
Christians of the Desert
- In France after the "Edict of Fontainbleau" protestants continue to gather in secret meetings outside, in fields and at night. Secret french police cannot find them usually, when they do mass arrests made.
- A radical and visionary wing develops. Pierre Jurieu a pastor declares end is near as signs in revealation being fulfilled. Leads to more boldness of French prots --> more arrests.
- This turns into armed rebellion by peasants, attack royal troops. known as the CAMISARDS (for unknown reasons).
- French army razes the areas where they operate. No aid given to them, they are snuffed out.
- Leader of French reformed Church, in 1715 organizes first synod. Advises obey authorities unless advise something contrary to word of God.
- French persecution of prots during this time under Philippe d' Orleans
- One of his pastors captured, orders no violence to rescue him. Founds Seminary in Lausanne (in exile, Switzerland). This turnes out well taught secret pastors for france.
- By death in 1767, French Reformed Church firmly rooted., persecution continues till 1787 when Louis XVI edcrees tolerance
Continues policies of Louis XIV b/c Louis XV was only 5 at the time of grandfathers death. Persecutes prot church.
Queen Elizabeth and the Church
She took an intermediary apporach between conservatives who wanted to retain ancient practices and belief and Calvinist Protestants who believed entire life and structure of church should adjust to biblical norm
King James Bible
King James I of England gives permission for this to be done.
- 1603 Elizabeth dies, declares James her successor. King of Scotland, son of Mary Stuart. English considered him aforeigner.
- Confliced with protestants who thought the England church was not reformed enough.
- He was not a catholic supported like his mother, rather felt King should be absolute, sought to increase power of episcoply to increase his own so sided agaisnt puritans, with anglican bishops.
- Persecuted Anabaptists for their egalitarianism.
- Published King James Bible.
- When he convenes parliament, and they turn out to be Puritan, he dissolves them and tries to manage taxes himself.
- Calls parlament two more times, ahvign to dissolve it each time with no gain, and then dies, succeeded by Charles I.
- Said would harry Puritans out of England if they wouldnt conform
- Protestants in England who did not think church was reformed enough, struggled with James I. Insisted on "purifying the church"
- Opposed traditional elements of worship, insisted on need for sober life, lacking in luxury and ostentation. Need to keep sabbath.Critical of drunkeness
- Critical of licention, including theatre because of immorality of events depicted and duplicity inherent in acting.
- Opposed to bishops, arguing it a later invention.
- Wanted presbyt or congregational polity during english civil war "round Heads"
Puritans who argued that instead of bishops, each congregation should be independant of each other.
Puritans who believed that baptism should only be administered to believing adults.
- 1604 Archbishop of Caterbur, approves a series of canons affirming episcopy hierarchy was a divinely inspired institution. (implies rejection of bishopless and thus puritan protestant churches in england). Published several other canons levied against puritans too.
- Leads to growth of enmity between house of commons and conservative bishops.
- 1605, a represive law the previous year agaisnt catholics, stating they were loyal to pope not king,.
- Catholics decided it was time to be rid of king. One member rented propery whose storage went below parliament, and filled with gunpowder barrels, to blow up durign next session when king there.
- Discovered, members executed. James imposes more fines, thousands of catholics go to prison.
- Succeeds James I, continues his policies. Believes in Divine Right of Kings.
- has pro catholic policies. marries daughter of Louis XIII. She is catholic, so allows her to practice catholicism. So Charles clashes with parliament just like James I.
- Appoints LAUD archbishop of Canterbury
trial of Richard Montague
- Proponent of the divine right of kings, enemy of Puritanism and Parlament. Published offensive books, after an especially offensive one parlamant arrests him and at triel sentences him to fines and prison.
- King Charles saves him from this by making him his personal chaplain. Making him exempt from Parlament.
- They plot to retaliate by accusing Duke of Buckingham of treason. Charles Dissolves parlament. Does this over and over, even making those that support him Lords, which alienates the house of commons further.
- Leads to King being seen as oppressor, and puritans gain influence.
During English Civil War want to retain Episcopy. (called royalists or Cavaliers by the opposition.)
- Made archbishop of Canterbury by Charles I
- , staunch supporter of anglicanism, and Armininianism, and uniform english church. Vehemently opposed to puritanism.
- Measures against them were creul, including death warrants and orders of mutilation.
- Charles I rewards this by giving him full powers in Scotland, where tries to impose Anglican liturgy.--> Scottish rebellion.
Rebellion in Scotland-->Long Parlament
- WIlliam laud tries to impose anglican liturgy in Scotland -->Rebellion.-->General Assembly in Scotland limits power of bishops--> Kings agents declare assembly dissolved --->Asdsembly refuses to dissolve and abolishes episcopy, reorginizing the scottish church as presbyterian. --->war
- CHarles did not have a large enough army or funds, so turns to irish catholic support --> SCottish Calvinists and Eng Puritans unite.
- So, when charles convenes parlament to raise funds, they dont support him, he dissolves them, and calls the SHort Parlament--> Scots invade England -->forced to reconvene parlament (long Parlament).
- Parlament called by Charles I, forced due to invading Scotland. They were unhappy with the king because his reign had led to economic problems. Because of this wanted to limit the kings power.
- They were convened because of the scottish invaders, so did not address the threat initially.
- 1) took measures agaisnt those who sought to destroy puritanism (set free Laud's imprisoned victims),
- 2) lord Strafford the kings most loyal minister brought to trial and condemned to death.
- 3) Law assembly could not be dissolved by the king without aggreement.
- --Then it was discovered king was negotiating with the invaders to undo parlament power, drew radical protestants to closely ally with those limiting kings power. --> CHarles's power dissappears as those opposed to puritanism are barred from parlament, he goes to civil war
Rules in absence of the king when Charles accuses house of commons of treason and thus loses his power.
English Civil War
- Parlament reduces Charles' power, then his supporters from parlament and raises an army, Charles brings his army agaisnt them his support from the nobility.
- Charles --> sought support of Irish Catholics
- PArlament --> Support of Scots
- Does this by aboloshing Episcopacy. and under scot influence declares presbyterian form of government, executing William Laud.
- Cromwell recruits calvary, the Parlament army defeats Charles I at battle of Naseby.
- Capture Charles's camp finding proof he was encouraging Irish invasion. Scots make him prisoner, and Parlament gets Charles,k adopting puritan measures (lords day, etc.)
- Parlament deeply divided, Puritans gian upper hand and purge parlament, arresting 45 of their leaders, making RUmp Parlament.
- Parlament during English Civil War makes a group of Theologians for advisement in religious matters. (121 ministers, 30 laymen, and 8 representatives from scotland). Scotland had the most powerful army, so theri influence was strong, and the Westminister Confession that came out of it was decidedly Calvinist.
- Recommended for Presbyterian form of government.
Oliver Cromwell and his Protectorate
- Comes to foreground durign Eng. Civil War. Puritan. He raised an army of calvary that was convinced of religious right, countered Charles I 's calvary, and infused rest of parlament with "religious right" thinking.
- When Puritans gian upper hand in parlament, and CHarles is beheaded by the Rump Parlament, he takes over. He stamps out the irish rebellion and royalist outbreak in scotland (Charles II).
- When rump parlament tried to make its power permanent, he expelled the remaining members, and locked the doors. Thus becoming the leader of England. "Lord Protector".
- Set on reforming of church and state. Tolerant religous system. Puritan policies implemented through legislation (lords day, against cockfighting). Economic policies favored middle class so pissed off aristocracy and poor.
- Did not create a stable republic.refused the crown. His son resigned his post after his death.
- Rule in between kings
- Basically period after Charles 1 beheaded and death of Cromwell (so no king).
- WHen puritans gain upper hand in parlament after Civil War, they capture charles whom they accuse of High Treason, behead him January 30, 1649
- This parlament is made by Oliver Cromwell, driving out the presbyterianists, so parlament full of congregationalists.
- At death of Charles I, scotland is afraid they will lose their independance, appoint Charles II their king.
- King of ENgland after Cromwell dies, he brings back in episcopy in england and scotland. Declares himself catholic on deathbed. James II his brotehr = successor
- After teh Protectorate failure by Crtomwell, it was necessary to restore the Monarchy. Under General Monck's leadership, recalls Charles II to throne.
- Parlament and CHarles restore Episcopy and book of common prayer.
- In scotland, country became staunch presbyterian during the protectorate, episcopy was ordered by Charles and Parlament, so rebellions, these were drowned in blood.
- After CHarles and James have their Catholic episode, William and Mary have tolerance. In scotland presbyterianism becomes the norm, and westminister confession its doctrinal form. Puritanism still dominant in England
- Succeeds Charles, tries to make England Catholic, decrees death penalty for those attending unauthorized worship.
- INVITES MARY STUART (catholic) to rule England.
Flees to france when English invite William of Orange and Mary to throne
William of Orange and MAry
Offered throne by England after James II tries to make england Catholic. They had a tolerant policy of religion, tolerence to all who swear allegiance to soveriegn and 39 articles (of 1562).
These are those who refuse to swear to the 39 articles under william and Mary, they are granted tolerance as long as they dont conspire against the king.
John Bunyan, John Milton
- Bunyan Writes Pilgrims Progress, Milton paradise Lost, written in wake of English Restoration.
- These works influence way read bible (Puritanism).
Council of Trent effects on Catholicism
- Papacy gains prestige and entrusted with most power over Catholic Church. Not well recieved in european courts b/c of nationalism, and absolute monarchs.
- People who did not like centralized church under the pope, were called Gallicanists. Those who defended it, Ultramontanes.
- Met on and off (not constant), dominated by Italian Clergy (75%)
- -Not Bible alone, but bible + latin vulgate w/ apocrypha+trdition is authoritative.
- -Justified by faith +works.
- Seven Sacraments reaffirmed, Reaffirmed Transubstantiation.
- Those who did not like the increasing power of the Catholic church under the pope, from the council of trent powers.
- France was one of the most powerful, so "Gaul"
Looked for authority beyond the mountains, to the pope (agaisnt the Gallicanists).
- French monarchy during the middle ages had obtained concessions from teh Catholic Church, granting the french some autonomy.
- Council of Trent increased power of Papacy, so french insisted on these "freedoms of the Gallican Church"
Named after Justin Febronius who wrote, "The State of the Church and the Legitimate Power of the Roman Pontiff". Argues churhc = community of the faithful, bishops represent them, therefore final auth rests in teh bishops, not the pope.
- In Vienna, Emperor Joseph II wanted to reform areas, but neede support of church. He took over education of the clergy and closed down monastaries he considered traditional, founded new churches and tried to reform church how he saw best.
- Pope condemned this as Josephism.
Fall of the Jesuits
- They basically were blamed for an assasination attempt ofJoseph I of Portugal. The Bourbon rulers basically made the pope disband them.
- The Jesuits were teh army of the Pope. this, Josephism, Gallicanism, etc, shows papacy power outside of the church waning.
Molina/Jesuits and Predestination
- Under leadership of Luis de Molina, Jesuits affirm that predestination based on God's foreknowledge.
- Domingo Banez, said this was contrary to Augustine.
Domingo Banez/Dominicans on Predestination
Said iot was contrary to Augustines teachings thus heretical.
- Michael Baius proposes augustinian theses similar to Augustine, arguing sinful will can produce nothing good.
- This was condemned, later this teachign resurfaced in teachings of Cornelius Jandenius in his book "Augustine". Regarded as too similar to Calvinist doctrines., condemned by Pope Urban VIII.
- This did not end it, it was taken up in France by Jean Duvergier. Becamse less a document on grace and predestination, rather religious reform.
- Was eventually taken up under Blaise Pascal
- Louis XIV did not tolerate the zeal of this movement, fearing sectarianism.
- In 1713 Pope Clement XI condemns Jansenism in the bull Unigenitus.
Jesuit theory that probability that an action was correct made it morally acceptable. To french Jansenists this was moral indifferentism.
Genius, converted to Jansenism at 31. published first of 20 "Provincial Letters" addressed to Parisian Jesuits. They were humorous and witty. This made Jansenism en vogue in France among Aristocracy for a while
Papal bull of Pope Clement XI condemning Jansenism categorically.
- Publicaiton in 1675 of the "Spiritual Guide" by Miguel de Molinos (Spain).
- Advocated total passivity before God. Believer simply to dissappear and die before God, having nothing to do with physical means, only spiritual.
- COndemned as moslem, or leading to laxity. Molinos was arrested and died in prison.
- It went to france. under Madame Guyon and Father Lacombe, and gathered followers around them.
Madame Guyon and Father Lacombe
- Bring Quietism to france. deeply spiritual.
- Guyon publishes "Short and Simple Means of Prayer", which eans fame throughout france. They go to paris
- Had radical claims, such to sever God one may have to sin, etc. But this ended with them going to prison.
- After Luther's death takes over as main interpreter of Lutheran theology.
- systematic exposition of theology "Loci Theologici" standard textbook for study of theology for lutherans.
- Accused of Humanist leanings thus people who agreed with him were "Phillipists" those agaisnt were "Strict Lutherans".
- Stressed need for good works on top of faith, as a witness to it.
- modified version of Augsburg interum, trying to get lutherans to compromise with catholicism.
- Atrict Lutherans accuse Philippe Melanchthon of ill when he signs it, he says there are things central to gospel (aphora) and things peripheral (adiaphora).
Things central to the biblw
things peripheral to the bible and not as essential. Can be sacrificed in order to be able to keep preachign the Aphora (essential)
- Accused Melanchthonists of ill when they signed the Leipzig confession (Mel makes APhora Adiaphora distinction)
- And of calvinism, because Mel eventually goves some credit to human will in salvation.
Formula of Concord
- 1577, intermediate position on isseus between Phillipists and Strict Lutherans.
- 1) While true some elements are not essential, one should not abandon them in times of persecution.
- 2) denied any difference between Zwingli and Calvinists interpretation of communion
- After formula of Concord, effort to reconcile the various positions within lutheranism. Championed by Martin Chemnitz.
- Emphasis on systematic thought.use of Aristotle.
- A product of Schools.
Legacy of protestant scholasticism
- doctrine of scriptural inspiration
- rigid confessionalsim
- convinced that although luthern doctrine was best interpretation of scripture, this does not means all others are heretecs or false.
- saw denial of christianity inthe controversies of his time.
- Makes essential nonessential argument, that which is not essential is important because God revealed it but not necessarily necessary to be a christian.
- Only that which relates to salvation is essential.
- Thus forerunner of ecumentical movement, also accused of Syncretism.
- Jacobus Arminius, dutch pastor, training was Calvinistic. Asked to refute opinions of Dirck Koornhert who rejected aspects of predestination.
- In defending his position, Arminianism born. Debated basis on which predestination takes place.
- Predestination based on God's foreknowledge of those who would later have faith in Jesus. Essentially, God knows what our response to Jesus will be.
- Blackballed at Council of Dort, they were persecuted, then eventually granted tolerance in 1631
University of Leiden, debated Arminius over the basis of predestination. He was a strict calvinist, believed predestination means before time God determined who would have faith in Jesus, faith is the result of God's foreknowledge.
- document by Arminian party in 1610, the document was a "remonstrance" thus they became known as the Remonstrants"
- 5 articles dealing with issues of predestination under debate.
- 1) Ambiguous def. of predestination
- 2) Jesus died for all, though only believers recieve the benifits.
- 3) Against the accusation of Pelagianism (leveled by Gomarius). (that humans capable of doing good on their own)
- 4) Rejects Augustine and Gomarius' idea that grace is irresistable.
- 5) Can one fall from grace? Not clear, they are not committed one way or another.
SYnod of Dort
- Dutch Estates General calls synod to settle the debate between Armenians and Gnomarists. LArgly scewed to Calvinism. Condemned it.
- Produced 5 doctrines against the Remonstrance.
- 1) unconditional election - saved because God chose
- 2) Jesus died only for elect
- 3) Humans so corrupted, no good come form them.
- 4)Irresistable Grace
- 5)Perseverance of the saints (cant lose salvation).
- TULIP acronym (Total deprav., Unconditional election, Limited Atonement, Irrisistable grace, Perseverance of saints
- From the Synod of Dort, against the Armenianists
- Westminister assembly, when Parlament had parted from Charles I, and made a council in theological matters, this document forms basis of Episcopal doctrine
- 1) Authority of Scripture
- 2)obscure texts interpreted in light of clearer ones.
- 3) ORIGINAL UTTER CORRUPTION OF MAN APART FROM gOD
- 4) cHRIST DIED FOR ELECT
- God calls to salvation
- from there on puritan laws. strict system of calvinist laws.
- Interest in world and confidence in powers of reason.
- Observation of the world can lead to true and significant knowledge.
1596-1650, produced a philosophical system, based on mathematecal resoning and distrust of all not absolutely certain. Cartesianism (his latin name was Cartesius), is the product of this. religious man.
- Implemented by Rene Descarte.
- Began by "Universal doubt" only keeping that which he found to be absolutely certain, primarily "I Think therefore I am".
- Idea of more perfect being cannot be a thought his own mind produces = proof of existance of God.
- But Universal doubt regarded as Skepticism, and thus possibly could lead to heresey.
- Jansenism embraced it as it's philosophical counterpoint.
- Important regarding relationship btw. spirit and matter (we are part thought, part physical matter).
- Body and soul do not communicate directly, but only via divine intervention. God moves the body on occasion of the soul's decision. (part of rationalism)
- not accepted, seems to blame God for our thoughts and actions.
An explanation of Body/Soul interaction via mathematics. Denied that there is more than one substance. Thought and action two attributes of the same substance. (Rationalism - Benedictus de Spinoza
- Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, infinite number of substances, independant from each other, (monads)
- The body works in concert with itself in regard to the preestablished order, like a clock works in regards to its gears.
- Seemed to imply God forordained all things good and evil, no human freedom.
- All knowledge based on experience,
- 1) Outer experience of the senses, and inner experience by which we know ourselves.
- Our selves, our outer reality, and God our only sources of experience.Probability is our judgement of likeliness.
- Faith is assent to knowledge derived from revealation rather than experience.
"Essay on Human Understanding", Empiricism, 1690. All knowledge acquired by experience
Reasonableness of Christianity, claiming Christianity is the most reasonable religion.
- Understanding of religion beyond narrow limits of orthodoxy
- Lord Herbert of Cherbury - held true religion must be universal, not based on particular revealations nor on historical events, but rather on natural human instinct, Deism.
- 5 doctrines: existence of God, obligation to worship Him, ethical requirements of worshipping Him, need for repentance, possibility of divine revealation (but not needed to be universally accepted)
- Fought opposed narrow dogmatism, and abandoning of religion in reaction to 30 years war.
Lord Herbert of Cherbury
FIrst great deist, - held true religion must be universal, not based on particular revealations nor on historical events, but rather on natural human instinct, Deism.
- Deist Classics - Christianity not Mysterious or a treatise Showing that there is Nothing in the Gospel Contrary nor Above It, and that no Christian Doctrine Can Be Properly Called a Mystery.
- Yep, thats all one title.
- Critiqued Empiricism. Optomist.Scope of true knowledge more limited than the rationalists claimed. No one has seen or experienced cause and effect, so things exist that are not "rational" knowledge, but rather habits of thinking.
- Pure reason does not allow us to affirm that there are such things as substance.
- His critiques put an end to deism. Notions of Soul and God have little meaning if we cannot rationally speak of anything but attibutes.
- Real name Francois Marie Arouet. Enemy of fanaticism. Took up Locke's couse of religious tolerance. Rationalists of a different sort.
- Reason and common sense must be rule, history is a progression of understanding of ourselves.
Charles Louis de Secondat
- republic better form of government, Monarchy due to prejudicial "honor, despotism based on Terror.
- Ergo need a tri-head system (like US Government today) because absolute power corrupts. (french Rationalists philosopher along with Voltaire and Rosseau)
Jean Jacques Rousseau
- Rulers are employees their task to defend freedom and justice.
- Religion toodogmas and institutions are part of corruption, need to return to natural religion (belief in God, immortality of the soul, and moral order).
- (French Rationalist Philosopher along with Voltaire and Secondat)
- "one of greatest philosophers of our time"
- Wrote "Critique of Pure Reason"1781 - Proposed radical alternative to Rationalism and Empiricism
- No such thing as innate ideas, rather fundamental structures of the mind, within those structures we place data our senses provide. Time, SPace, etc, are teh structures of our mind, which we use to organize the data, making thinkable experiences.
- Existence not a datum derived from reality, but rather out of the categories of the mind.
- Mind cannot know that which is beyond it, such as God.
- Wrote "Critique of Practical reason" - that practical reason is different from pure reason "act in such a manner in action as can be made a universal rule" In other words, golden rule of morallity, can have God as Judge.
- Essentially philosophy and ethics of religion
In response to the 30 years war, many chose rationalism, spiritualism was a a different response, rahter a completely spiritual pilosophy.
- Spiritualist, German. Lutheran, Writes "Brilliant Dawn, a collection of his visions. Sees church as a tower of babel, rather wants to cultivate inner spiritual life.
- In the book wrote down "as dictated by God" nearly incomprehensible metaphoric references that people couldnt understand, but rather take a bajillion different ways.
- Exalted freedom of spirit, agaisnt the dogma and liturgy of the church, guidance by Holy Spirit.
- Founder of the Quakers. God does not dweel in churches, Hyms, creeds, etc are really human hindrances. Instead one must follow God by following their true "Inner Light". Light by which we are able to recognize and accept presence of God.
- Followers full of religious enthusiasm to the point where they trembled, so "quakers". Essentially speaking out at meetings. Women and men allowed to speak in meetings when urged by the spirit, encouraged to move in this. COmmunity and love important.
- Ultumate truth not in scripture, but in spirit behind scripture.
- Founded by Goearge Fox, William Penn was also a member. Believed ultumate truth found in holy spirit, not in scripture, spoke as urged byt he holy spirit.
- Enthusiastic to the point they trembled, "Quakers".
- Quaker following Fox.
- Concieved of a "holy experiment", obtained from King Charles a grant of land in America.(Pennsylvania) Where all religion tolerated, he even bought the land from the indians.
- SImilar to Boehme and Fox in teachings.
- All that exists is reflection of the attributes of God. Therefore visible world corresponds with the invisible one. Scripture reflects truths that can only be known by those who have entered Spiritual world.-
- German movement Philipp Jakob Spener founder. Believed in general elevation of all christians to a "true deep chrisitanity", without the seperation of clergy and laity.
- Emphasis on what God requires of us VS what society requires.
- DOES NOT REQUIRE A CONVERSION EXPERIENCE. (SPener and Francke)
- Was the birth of Protestant missions
Philip Jakob Spener
- Founder of German Pietism. Outlines a program for the development of piety.(Pia Desideria)
- Lutheran doctrine of universal priesthood of believers, less differences between laity and clergy.
- Called for true christianity by means of sanctification.
- There is a contrast between what society requires of us morally, and what God requires of us. This is what Pietism insists on.
- near end began to look at revealation as being fulfilled
August Hermann Francke
- Follower of Spener's German Pietism. Same beliefs except did not agree with Spener's revealation interpretations.
- Also had a moving religious experience, and paid attention to relationship between pietism and traditional lutheran theology.
- DID NOT INSIST ON hAVING THIS EXPERIENCE FOR ALL.
Ziegenbalg and Heinrich Plutschau
German Pietists sent out as missionaries to India by Francke, at the request of the king of Denmark.
Zinzendorf and Moravians
- Count Zinzendorf, influenced by Pietism (his godfather was spener).
- Offered asylum to Hussite Moravians fleeing their land due to persecution, They found Community of Herrnhut.
- Interest in missions, this spread through Herrnhut. Missionaries sent to Carribean then africa, india, S America, and N America.
- This movement impacted John Wesley, and was an example of missionarism.
- began as anglican pastor. Went on to found methodism. Leader of "holy club", He essentially was a Calvinist, yet chose the Arminian position of predestination.
- Organizes groups into "societies" in private homes and buildings. It is from this people began to call them Methodists.
Moravian, became John Wesley's spiritual advisor. Urged him to preach faith until he had it, then continue because he had it. Led to his profound experience may 24, 1783.
- Famous preacher, large part in First Great Awakening, friend of John Wesley.
- His preachign was emotional, later he was won over to Calvinism.
- He did not put structures in place where he preached as Wesley did. Invites Wesley to America to take charge in his absence.
- Whifield preached in the open, and convincd Wesley of it.
- "Grand Itenerant"
- Wesley discovered he was preaching in society meetings and wanted to stop it, but ended up being impressed by Maxfield, so this started the use of Lay Preachers in the church.
- Lay preachers were not to offer communion.
Organization of early Methodism (Connections, etc.)
- Wesley organized his followers into a Connection, He set up a number of societies to form a Circuit, these were under the leadership of a "Superintendant".
- He also arranged periodic meetings including the preachers (at that time Anglican), and lay preachers, this became the Annual Conference.
Methodism Breaking with Anglican Church
- John Wesley repremanded Methodists who called for a break with Anglican Church.
- However, Some anglicans saw methodism as an indictment of their own shortcomings.
- Others took offense at his preachign outdoors.
- Legally, the anglican church was required to register its buildings and outside meetings but did not want to, this was agaisnt the law so Wesley instructed HIS preachers to do so.
- Wesley also believed all ordained ministers had powers of ordination, not just bishops, this was forced into his practices by the american independence. This was a theological difference.
- Lastly, the Annual confrence decided that where the local Anglican Chruches were not big enough for the population, outside services could be held in conflict with them. This was the final step.
- eARLY LAWS WERE PURITAN BECAUSE IT WAS founded when puritanism was at high point in church of england.
- King James did not want it, so he weeded it out, and vast parts of virginia were given to a catholic colony, Maryland. Later the colony earned lots of $$ on tobacco using slaves, so when puritanism becasme strong again, had little effect on the wealthy Virginians.
- Southern colonies below virginia were more tolerant than VA, so accepted desenters as they left
Founded by James Oglethorpe as an alternative to debtors prison, George Whitfield preached here, and later Methodists and Baptists harvested the area Whitfield had sown.
Largeley Puritan impacted.\Massachusets
- Northhampton MA, believed in need for personal experience in religion.
- Calvinist, in 1734 people began responding to his sermons with unusual emotional outbursts and fervor, many with increased attention to attention to devotion in their personal lives.
- Began by response to Jonathan Edwards preaching, then stirred by George Whitfield
- Marked by single experiences, this importance painted it in a good light for baptists (because of the need for an experience underscored the wrongness of infant baptist).
- Catholic Missionary to China,
- By 1700 had about 300,000 converts
Japan 1549, monks claim 300,000 Japanese converted
Oratory of Divine Love
- Prevents Spread of Protestantism btw 1517-1527
- Giovanni Carraffa heads this (Pope Paul IV) prepares way for strengthening of the Papacy.
Pope Paul III
- Counter Reformation Pope
- Appoints key leaders in response to Reformation
- Conterini, is made cardinal, commissioned for religious reform
- Puts Cardinal Pole on council of religious reform
Halted Spread of reformation in several areas. (Italy, in disunity dominated by spain, Papacy prevented translation of Bible into Italian).
Placed on council of religious reform by Pope Paul III
Pope Paul IV
- Supports Counter Reformation, but keeps papacy tied to spain.
- WritesBody of Offensive lit- argues body of catholic church has always been one & the apostolic line.
- Neglects Eastern Orthodoxy.
- Founded by Ignatius Loyola,
- Army of Catholic Church
- BEyond vows of poverty, chastity and celibacy, vow to obey pope's will without question.
- Inculculation of "Docility" to church, rendered pliable by the church, always to "take into account what father says"
- Known for Education, fighting heresy, missions
- -regain large parts of southern Germany, S. Provinces of Belgium & poland.
Reflects triumphalism of rome, columns of St Peter's Basilica.
- Basque family man, founds Jesuit order
- Writes "Spiritual Exercises", to guide recruits in spiritual exercises over 30 days (for a bang!)
- "If the church tells me that white is black and vice versa, then I will believe it is so."
- originated agaisnt Albergenses in France during 13th CE.
- Backed up Jesuits, especially in spain.
- 10000 executed under Thomas Torquenda, Under Ximines 2000 executed.
- If accused by them, 30 days grace to recant with less severepenalty, if refuse = obstinance = Harsh
- 2 witnesses can accuse you, they do not have to face you. anything you say = obstinance.
- (this torture lead to crazy confessiosn of black mass, etc.)
- Directed esp. agaisnt Jewish converts (las conversias).
- Disbanded in 1854
THe inquisition focuses on jewish converts, leads to expulsion of jews from spain.
- Creation of Printing Press,
- Allows Protestants to disseminate their ideas
- leads to catholic Index of Books.
Index of Books
- List of forbidden books (Luther, etc)
- Not abolished until 1966 (Vatican II)
Results of the Reformation
- Catholicism no longer universal church
- Cath. replaced by nation religion of protestantism in many places.
- 2nd Great period of Credal Development
- Bible rather than decrees = basis of faith
- Emphasis on equality, anti-aristocraticism (esp. in the clergy)
Traits of Christianity in America
- 1 Pluralism (many many groups present)
- 2 Voluntaryism Element of Decision of religion
- 3) Denominationalism
- 4) Immigrant character (accomodating old world rel. in new world
- 5) Secularism - place of rel in your life more narrow.
- 6 Lay Influence
- 7)Active Churches - obsessed with DOING things
- 8) Renewals, Revivals, Awakenings
- 9 Anti Intellectualism.
- Carl marx, Freud.
- becomes worldview
over time increase # of disciplines until no longer God centered.
Favored great Awakening methods (win out)
Oppose Great awakening Methodology
- wanted to apply discipline methods to protect lords table, Dutch reformer. rouse from nominalism
- Combines with Tennents,and Edwards for Great awakening
Tennants (gilbert tennant
Presbyterian churches, wants to rouse congregation from nominalism. joins with Edwards and Frey. for Great Awakening
- Old Light,
- Blasted the revival from pulpit in Boston.
- "Enthusiasm Described and Cautioned against"
- Moved in direction of rationalism-- gets revivalists expelled from area.
- Revivalist in america after Whitefield,
- Crazy. Screaming sermons, claimed he could sense unsaved "Brethren & Neighbors",
- leads revival into disrepute.
Effects of greaT AWAkening
- -United american christianity under acommon goal
- sense that america had a special destiny
- Increased church membership
- impulse towards higher education for training those called to ministry.
Churches choosing sides in America during the Revolution
- 1) Anglicans - loyal to revolutionary cause in S. Colonies, divided in Maryland and Va, British side in the north
- 2) Congregationalists, Baptists, Lutherans, roman cath & Presbyterians all espouse cause of revolution
- 3) Pacifists - Quakers, Mennonites, Moravians = patriotic but refused to participate, persecuted some for this.
- wrote: On religion speeches to its cultural despisers - seeking to make a place for Christian discussion amongst his intellectual peers.
- Religious emotion at the sublime level manifests its own integrity (did not defend dogma or place emphasis on Christianity above others in this work)
- Writes The Christian faith- systematic theology
- Christianity a feeling of absolute dependance on God, not a "knowing or doing" (so not moralism or rationalism)
- Focus on principles of faith (Grace and Salvation) rather than divisive arguments on nature of Trinity, etc. (essence rather than being of Jesus)
- Higher criticism (historical and theological background out of the text) leads to criticism and suspicion of older traditional doctrines about the bible, life and teachings of Jesus, and creeds.
- "the Life of Jesus Critically Examined"
- accused gospels of unhistorical accounts withn the gospels. jesus more principle than person.
- "Old and New Faith" accused Jesus as deciever and imposter.
- Similar to Schleirmacher,
- emphasis on the will (works on Christ rather than person of Christ)
- Ethical implications on Kingdom of God
- Know christ is son of God because he has place of God in our lives and does an ethical work in us only God could do
- "mediating theologian"
- Nurturing of christian children should be gradual and educative rath than sudden convertive.
- Science and supernatural harmonized and not seperate.
- christs atonement eternal and divine principles of love, rather than atonement for angry God.
John Henry Newman
- Tenable anglicism
- Concerned with anglican position between puritanism and catholicism.
- Later becoems a roman catholic, writes on liturgy, church order, doctrine, true nature of church.
development of black people within churhc and america.
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
- bible from womens poitn of view.
Adolf von harnack
- effect of social and cultural mores upon christianity.
- Fatherhood of God and Brotherhood of Man
- Relation of newer psychological insights to religious experience.
- Analyze conversion as to its psychological factors
- Comparative religions.
- Compared holy and "experience of the other" in other religions to Christianity
- modern religious sociology
- the social teachings of the christian church
- Difference between churches and sects -
- vision, religious compassion, and application of social gospel movement in america.
- Only socially oriented christianity can mee tneeds of the modern age.
- bible dominated by social concern