Biology chapter 10

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Biology chapter 10
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2011-04-11 12:18:48
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Biology chapter 10
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  1. ________ _______ is the study of DNA and how it serves as the chemical basis of heredity
    Molecular biology
  2. _______ ______, the causal agent of cold sores, chicken pox, etc
    herpes virus
  3. ________ are viruses that infect bacterial cells.
    Bacteriophages
  4. The monomer unit of DNA and RNA is the nucleotide, containing:
    • - Nitrogenous base (G, C, A, T or U)
    • - 5-carbon sugar (ribose or deoxyribose)
    • - Phosphate group
  5. Thymine, cytosine, and uracil are single-ring structures called ______
    pyrimidine
  6. Adenine and guanine are larger, double-ring structures called _____
    purines
  7. DNA is composed of two __________ chains joined together by hydrogen bonding between bases, twisted into a helical shape.
    polynucleotide
  8. Guanine pairs with ______, forming three hydrogen bonds
    cytosine
  9. DNA replication occurs in the______ direction
    5' to 3'
  10. Replication is discontinuous on hte ______ template, forming short segments.
    5' to 3'
  11. What is the central dogma of molecular biology?
    DNA-RNA-PROTEIN
  12. DNA replication follows a _________ model because half of the parental molecule is conserved in each daughter molecule
    semiconservative
  13. DNA replication begins at the origins of ______
    replication
  14. The primed #s refer to the C atoms of the nucleotide sugars. At one end of each DNA strand, the sugar’s 3’ C is attached to a hydroxyl group; at the other end, the sugar’s 5’ C has a _______group
    phosphate
  15. Replication is continuous on the _______ template
    3’ to 5’
  16. DNA _______ adds nucleotides to a growing chain
    polymerase
  17. DNA _______ joins small fragments into a continuous chain
    ligase
  18. The DNA genotype is expressed as _______, which provide the molecular basis for phenotypic trait
    proteins
  19. A gene is a sequence of ____that directs the synthesis of a specific protei
    DNA
  20. DNA is transcribed into RNA. - in the _____
    nucleus
  21. RNA is translated into protein. - in the _____
    cytoplasm
  22. Protein construction requires a conversion of a nucleotide sequence to an _____ ______ sequence
    amino acid
  23. Transcription rewrites the DNA code into _____, using the same nucleotide “language”. Each “word” is a codon, consisting of three nucleotide
    RNA
  24. Translation involves switching from the ______ “language” to amino acid “language
    nucleotide
  25. Each amino acid is specified by a codon. ____codons are possible
    64
  26. A ________is a specific DNA sequence that signals the beginning of a gene/ where to start transcribing a gene
    promoter
  27. A ________is a specific DNA sequence that signals the end of a gene/ where to stop transcribing a gene
    terminator
  28. The RNA nucleotides are linked by the transcription enzyme RNA _______
    polymerase
  29. 3 Phases of Transcription
    Initiation RNA polymerase binds to a promoter, where the helix unwinds and transcription starts.

    Elongation RNA nucleotides are added to the chain

    Termination RNA polymerase reaches a terminator sequence and detaches from the templat
  30. RNA ______ removes introns and joins exons to produce a continuous coding sequence
    splicing
  31. _____ ______ is a molecular interpreter to convert a3-nucleotide mRNA codon sequence to 1 amino acid
    Transfer RNA (tRNA)
  32. Cells have a supply of amino acids in the ______ that areobtained from food or other chemical
    cytoplasm
  33. ____ molecules match an amino acid to its corresponding mRNA codon
    tRNA
  34. Ribosomes build _______
    polypeptides (proteins)
  35. Translation occurs on the surface of the ribosome
    ribosome
  36. Ribosomes have two subunits: ____ and _____
    small and large
  37. Each subunit is composed of _____ ______ and proteins
    ribosomal RNAs and proteins
  38. Ribosomal subunits come together during ______
    translation
  39. _________ have binding sites for mRNA and tRNAs
    Ribosomes
  40. Translation can be divided into the same 3 phases as transcription:________,_______,______
    initiation, elongagtion, & termination.
  41. Transcriptional initiation brings together the components needed to begin ________ ______
    RNA synthesis
  42. A large ribosomal subunit joins the small subunit, allowing the ribosome to function. The first tRNAoccupies the ___ site, which will hold the growing peptide chain. The___ site is available to receive the next tRNA
    • P
    • A
  43. Elongation adds _____ _____ to the ______ chain until a stop codonterminates translation.
    • amino acids
    • polypeptide
  44. Each amino acid addition occurs in a 3-step elongation process.
    1) Codon recognition: the anticodon of an incoming tRNAmolecule, carrying its amino acid, pairs with the mrNA codonin the A site of the ribosome.

    2) Peptide bond formation: the growing polypeptide separates from the tRNA in the P site & attaches to the newly added amino acid in the A site.

    3) Translocation: The “empty”tRNA in the P site leaves the ribosome & the growing polypeptide attached to the tRNA in the A site moves to the P site.

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