Toxicology Exam 3

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Author:
Rx2013
ID:
78847
Filename:
Toxicology Exam 3
Updated:
2011-04-11 12:10:11
Tags:
Poisonous Plants
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Description:
Poisonous Plants
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  1. Toxicities may vary based on
    • plant parts
    • age of plant
    • climate/soil conditions
  2. Blue-green algae
    • toxic during bloom
    • hepatopeptide (cyclinc polypeptide) = fast death factor
  3. symptoms of blue-green algae poisoning
    • GI inflammation
    • swollen liver
    • tubular necrosis
  4. Ocean algae
    • domoic acid (green)
    • kainic acid (red)
    • from filter feeding mussels
  5. domoic acid (green algae) is found
    in the north
  6. kainic acid (red algae) associated with
    • saxitoxin
    • paralytic shelfish poisoning
    • extremely potent phytotoxin
    • 50X the potentcy of curare
  7. mechanism of saxitoxin
    • blocks Na+ channels
    • fast acting after ingestion
    • resutls in paralisis and paresthesias
    • blocks respiratory muscles
  8. treatment of saxitoxin poisoning
    symptomatic
  9. domoic acid and kainic acid
    • excitatory amino acids that activated the glutamate receptor resulting in blockade.
    • controll of the ion channel is lost and may be permenant
  10. short term symptoms of ocean algae exposure
    • gi distress
    • headache
    • hemiparesis
    • confusion
    • seizures
  11. long term effects of ocean algae exposure
    • memory and neuronal loss
    • can be irreversible
  12. Poisonous fungi
    • ergot
    • amanita species (mushrooms)
  13. C. purpurea
    • ergot alkaloids
    • ergotamine
    • ergonovine
  14. C. purpurea exposure results in
    • intense vasoconstriction
    • irreversible vasoconstriction
    • uterine muscle contractions
  15. Amanita muscaria also known as ___ and is (colors)
    • fly agaric
    • red with white spots
  16. A. Muscaria poison agents
    • muscarine
    • muscaridine
    • ibotenic acid
    • muscimol
  17. symptoms of A. muscaria poison
    • depend on cholinergic properties
    • mild psychotomimietic action
  18. A. Phalloidin
    • fast acting
    • combines with actin influencing muscle contractions
    • explosive diarrhea followed by hepatic and renal damage
    • 60% mortality if untreated
  19. A. amanitins
    • slow acting
    • bind RNA polymerase inhibiting protein synthesis primarily in the liver
    • signs of hepatotoxicity in 3 days
    • marked increse in ALTs
    • renal and proximal tubular lesions in severe cases
  20. Rhus toxicity comes from
    • poison ivy (R. toxicodendron)
    • poison oak (R. diversiloba)
    • poison sumac, dogwood or elder (R. vernix)
  21. Agent of toxicity in Rhus plants
    urushiol
  22. Rhus prevention
    • recognize plants
    • wear long sleeves, boots and gloves
    • launder contaminated clothes seperately
    • use barrier products such as ivy block

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