Toxicology Exam 3

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Rx2013
ID:
78850
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Toxicology Exam 3
Updated:
2011-04-11 12:41:05
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Toxic Responses hepatic renal respiratory systems
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Toxic Responses of the hepatic, renal and respiratory systems
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  1. Functions of the liver
    • production of bile which is stored in the gall bladder
    • storage of glucose in the form of glycogen
    • metabolism of protein and fats
    • storage of A, D, K, B12 and Folate
    • synthesis of clotting factors
    • detoxification
  2. Fatty liver
    • deposits of fat cause liver enlargement
    • still functional
    • reversible
  3. liver fibrosis
    scar tissue forms
  4. liver cirrhosis
    • growth of connective tissue destroys liver cells
    • 20-25 yrs of heavy drinking
    • non reversible
  5. most succeptible zone for damage
    • zone 1
    • highest blood flow
  6. Toxic responses of the renal system
    • afferent arteriolar constriction
    • obstruction
    • back leak
  7. Afferent arteriolar constriction to the glomerulus results in
    decreased glomerular pressure
  8. Toxins to the lungs may be
    particualates or gases
  9. Size of particles effecting the alveolar region
    1 micrometer
  10. consequence of impaired nutrient homeostasis in the liver
    • hypoglycemia
    • confusion
    • hypercholesterolemia
  11. consequence of impaired filtration of particulates in the liver
    endotoxemia
  12. Consequences of impaired protein synthesis in the liver
    • excess bleeding
    • hypoalbuminemia
    • ascites
    • fatty liver
  13. consequences of impaired bioactivation and detoxification in the liver
    • jaundice
    • hyperammonemia => coma
    • Loss of secondary male sex characteristics
    • diminished drug metabolism
    • inadequate detoxification
  14. consequences of limpaired formation of bile and biliary secretion in the liver
    • fatty diarrhea
    • malnutrition
    • vitamin E deficiency
    • jaundice
    • gallstones
    • hypercholesterolemia
    • Manganese induced neurotoxicity
    • delayed drug clearance
  15. Toxins that may cause fatty liver
    • CCL4
    • ethanol
    • fialuridine
    • valproic acid
  16. toxins that may cause hepatocyte death
    • apap
    • Cu
    • dimethylformamide
    • ethanol
    • ecstasy
  17. toxins that may cause immune mediated response in the liver
    • declofenac
    • ethanol
    • halothane
    • tienilic acid
  18. toxins that may cause canalicular cholestasis
    • chlorpromazine
    • cyclosporin A
    • 1,1-dichlorethylene
    • estrogens
    • Mn
    • phalloidin
  19. toxins that may cause bile duct damage
    • amoxicillin
    • ANIT
    • methylene dianiline
    • sporidosmin
  20. toxins that may cause sinusoidal disorders
    • anabolic steroids
    • cyclophosphamide
    • microcystin
    • pyrrolidine alkaloids
  21. toxins that may cause fibrosis and cirrhosis of the liver
    • arsenic
    • ethanol
    • vitamin A
    • vinyl chloride
  22. toxins that may cause tumors in the liver
    • aflatoxin
    • androgens
    • thorium dioxide
    • vinyl chloride
  23. Zone 1 hepatotoxins
    • Fe overload
    • allyl alcohol
  24. Zone 3 hepatotoxins
    • CCL4
    • APAP
    • Ethanol
  25. Bile duct toxins
    • methylene dianiline
    • sporidesmin
  26. sinusoidal toxins
    • cyclophosphamide
    • monocrotaline
  27. kupffer cell toxins
    • endotoxin
    • GdCL3
  28. Ito cell toxin
    • Vitamin A
    • Ethanol (chronic)
  29. Reasons for zone 1 toxicity
    • preferntial uptake area
    • high oxygen levels
  30. Reasons for zone 3 toxicity
    • more P450 enzymes
    • less GSH for detoxification
  31. Reason for bile duct toxicity
    high concentrations of reactive metabolites in the bile
  32. reasons for sinusoidal toxicity
    • greater vulnerability to toxic metabolites
    • less ability to maintain glutathione levels
  33. reason for toxicity in kupffer cells
    preferential uptake and activation
  34. reason for toxicity in Ito cells
    • preferential site for vitamin A storage
    • activation and transformation to collagen synthesizing cells in response to ethanol

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