MCB Exam 4- 4/11

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Author:
bkheath
ID:
78869
Filename:
MCB Exam 4- 4/11
Updated:
2011-04-11 23:16:08
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Immune System
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Immune System 4/11
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  1. Wb cells which are produced in red bone marrow & mature in thymus, circulate in blood & lymph & go to lymph nodes, spleen where they do battle
    T lymphocytes (T cells)
  2. Wb cells distinguished by the CD8 cell-surface glycoprotein & directly kill virus/pathogen-infected cells & abnormal cells
    Cytotoxic T cells (Tc Cells)
  3. Function to help regulate the activities of B cells and cytotoxic T cells during an immune response by secreting cytokines, which determine which immune response will be activated
    Helper T cells (T H cells)
  4. Soluble protein messengers that are secreted by leukocytes and help determine which immune response will be activated by communication
    Cytokines
  5. 2 Types of Helper T cells & what cells they assist
    • Type 1 helper T cell (T H1): assist cytotoxic T cells
    • Type 2 helper T cell (T H2): assist B cells
  6. Examples of cytokines (4)
    • IL-1
    • IL-2
    • Interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha)
    • Tumer necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha)
  7. Type of cytokine which is produced by activated APCs
    Stimulates TH cells and B-cells
    IL-1
  8. Type of cytokine which is produced by macrophages and NK cells
    Cytotoxic to tumor cells
    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha)
  9. 2 types of immunity
    • Innate
    • Acquired (Adaptive)
  10. 2 types of acquired immunity
    • Humoral immunity
    • Cell-mediated immunity
  11. Humoral immunity vs cell-mediated
    • Type of immunity which produces antibodies and destroys extracellular pathogens
    • vs
    • Type of immunity which monitors all cells & destroys self's abnormal cells & intracellular pathogens (mostly T cells & NK cells)
  12. _____ cells make antibodies and are a type of ____ immunity
    • B cells
    • Humoral
  13. 4 functions of B cells
    • antibody production
    • immune memory
    • antigen presentation
    • produce cytokines
  14. B cells become ____ cells or ____ cells
    • plasma cells
    • memory B cells
  15. Fully activated B cells which each produce ONE type of antibody
    Have short life but their antibodies can persist
    Plasma cells
  16. Partially activated B cells which do NOT secrete antibodies
    Have long life & stay in lymphoid tissue, prepared for another encounter w/same antigen
    Memory B cells
  17. Type of wb cell that is specific and is distinguished by CD8 on cell surface; attacks virus-infected cell or tumor cell by producing perforin, which causes cell lysis--> cell death
    Tc cells
  18. Toxic chemical produced by Tc cells which pokes a hole in cell, making it leaky, causing cell lysis & cell death
    Perforin
  19. Type of wb cell that is nonspecific, attacks virus-infected cell or tumor cell by producing perforin, causing cell lysis & cell death
    NK cells (natural killer cells)
  20. Membrane proteins (glycoproteins) which present processed antigen to T cells & are important in tissue rejection
    MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex)
  21. Type of MHC which shows a foreign antigen, and present only on antigen-presenting cells (APC cells)
    MHC II
  22. Type of MHC which marks cell as "self"
    All cells have xcpt rb cells so concern when receiving organ transplant (foreign tissue=nonself)
    MHC I
  23. Large antigen molecule with readily accessible, repeating antigenic determinants which B cells can bind to directly w/out being processed, stimuting B cells to differentiate into a plasma cell and produce antibodies
    T-independent antigen
  24. Type of antigen which has less accessible antigenic determinants- B cells require help of helper T cells to target these antigens
    (most common antigen)
    T-dependent antigens
  25. Number of antibodies produced in response to infection
    Antibody titer
  26. A ________ infection is a type of infection that you get first in life, and ___ is the immunoglobin produced.
    • primary
    • IgM
  27. Process that is specific for infection, w/e is needed is what is produced and multiplied
    Clonal selection
  28. General structure of IgG (3 regions)
    • Variable regions
    • Diversity region
    • Joining regions
  29. Describes a lack of reaction by the body's defense mechanisms to foreign substances.
    Lymphocytes are said to be _____ when they fail to respond to their specific antigen.
    • Clonal Anergy
    • anergenic
  30. 4 types of acquired immunity
    • Naturally acquired: encountered during daily life
    • Artificially acquired: via vaccine
    • Active
    • Passive
  31. Active vs passive acquired immunity
    • Response to antigens via humoral or cell-mediated responses; immediate (T, B cells)
    • Receive antibodies from another individual; takes ~wk (injected into animal who gets immune, then make vaccine)
  32. Active vs passive immunization
    • Administration of a vaccine so patient actively mounts a protective immune response
    • Person acquires immunity through transfer of antibodies formed by immune person or animal

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