Histo Lecture 19

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Author:
paffman7
ID:
78881
Filename:
Histo Lecture 19
Updated:
2011-04-11 14:59:04
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PT624
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Description:
Endocrine System
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  1. How does the Hypothalamus control endocrine function?
    • Receives sensory input from various organ systems
    • Directs pituitary gland secretion of various "releasing hormones"
    • Pituitary gland stimulates hormone secretion from the major endocrine organs of the body
  2. What hormones is the pancreas associated with?
    • Insulin
    • Glucagon
  3. What hormones are the Parathyroid glands associated with?
    Parathyroid hormone
  4. What hormones are the adrenal glands associated with?
    • Cortisol
    • Aldosterone
    • Epinephrine
  5. What hormones is the Thyroid gland associated with?
    Tri-iodothyronine-T3, Thyroxine - T4, calcitonin
  6. What hormones are the gonads associated with?
    • Estrogen, progesterone
    • Testosterone
  7. How does the basic endrocine signaling system work?
    • Regulated secretion of hormones
    • Diffusion of hormones through the systemic circulation
    • Diffusion of hormones out of the vasculature, to the target cell
    • Binding to specific hormone receptor on cell
  8. Most endocrine system utilize what feedback?
    Negative feedback loop
  9. What is physiologic response-driven feedback?
    Hormone production is inhibited by change in physiologic parameter
  10. What are some examples of a physiologic response-driven feedback?
    • Blood glucose
    • Blood Ca2+
    • Blood osmolarity
    • Blood Na+, K+, H+
  11. How does endocrine axis-driven feedback work?
    • Hypothalamus secretes releasing hormones
    • Releasing hormones stimulates secretion of tropic hormones (from pituitary glands)
    • Tropic hormones stimulate release of hormones from peripheral endocrine glands
  12. Neural input provides stimulus for secretion of:
    hypothalamic-releasing hormones
  13. Daily rhythm of hormone release occurs due to input from the:
    Suprachiasmatic nucleus
  14. What does the Pineal gland do?
    Secretes melatonin in cyclical fashion to inform the system of the light-dark cycle
  15. Systemic and psychological stress also stimulates what?
    Endocrine system
  16. What are the three types of hormones released?
    • Proteins & polypeptides
    • Steroids
    • Tyrosine derivatives - amines
  17. What three things does the hormone type determine?
    • Mode of transport
    • Binding to target cell
    • Action on target cells
  18. Protein/peptide and amine hormones are produced and stored where?
    in intracellular vesicles
  19. Steroid/thyroid hormones are produced from what?
    Cholesterol
  20. Steroid/thyroid hormones circulate how?
    Bound to plasma protein
  21. What do protein-bound hormones allow for?
    • Provides a reservoir of circulating hormones
    • Increases the half-life of hormones
    • Controls movement of hormones into target cells
  22. Binding of cell membrane receptors (proteins, peptides, catecholamines) activates what?
    Intracellular 2nd messenger system that stimulates target cells
  23. Binding to intracellular receptors (steroid hormones) activates what?
    Binds to DNA and stimulate/repress transcription
  24. Binding to nuclear receptors (thyrod hormones) affects what?
    Directly affects gene transcription to promote metabolic activity of cells
  25. Thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) stimulates what?
    Release of TSH
  26. Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) stimulates what?
    release of FSH/LH
  27. Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) stimulates what?
    release of ACTH
  28. Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) stimulates what?
    Release of GH
  29. Where is Oxytocin released from?
    • paraventricular nucleus of hte hypothalamus
    • -Stimulates breast duct contraction (milk ejection)
  30. Where is ADH released from?
    supra-optic nucleus of the hypothalamus
  31. What are some facts about the anterior pituitary (adenohypophysis)?
    • Contains a collection of tropic hormone-releasing cells
    • Each hormine is secreted by only one type of cell
  32. What are some facts about hte posterior pituitary (neurohpophysis)?
    • Distal continuation of the hypothalamus; modified neurons
    • Nuclei of the hypothalamus secrete hormone and sore them in axon terminals of the posterior pituitary
    • Hormones are released upon appropriate stimulation
  33. Name the 6 pituitary hormones
    • ACTH - adrenocorticotropic hormone
    • TSH - thyrod-stimulating hormone
    • FSH - follicle-stimulating hormone
    • LH - Leutenizing hormone
    • GH - growth hormone
    • PRL - prolactin
  34. What do somatotropes do?
    Release GH
  35. What do cotricotropes do?
    Release ACTH to stimulate release of adrenal hormones
  36. What do thyrotrops do?
    Release TSH to stimulate release of thyroid hormones (T3/T4)
  37. What do gonadotrops do?
    Release FSH and LH to stimulate sex steroid release from gonads
  38. What do lactotropes do?
    Release PRL to stimulate milk production

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