Theory II

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sthomp88
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78882
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Theory II
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2011-04-11 17:06:43
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chapter thirty two
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week thirteen
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  1. List 5 purposes of government standards of nutrition.
    • facilitate education for individuals about dietary needs and goals: for health promotion
    • healp achieve diet adequacy for the public
    • make recommendations relative to poor food habits: missed meals, omission of essential foods and nutrients, and illogical dieting
    • make specific recommendations for oral health
    • motivate for behavioral modification
  2. What are 2 guidelines for government standards of nutrition?
    • provide guidelines through printed and web-based educational materials
    • guidelines reflect health concerns of the general public
  3. List 5 different specific dietary standards.
    • Dietary reference intakes: DRIs
    • estimated average requirements: EARs
    • recommended dietary allowances: RDAs
    • adequate intakes: AIs
    • tolerable upper intake levels, or upper levels: ULs
  4. Which dietary standard is established for vitamins and minerals, and is established by the institute of medicine for the healthy general population to avoid overeating and to prevent chronic disease?
    dietary reference intakes (DRIs)
  5. Which dietary standard relfects adequate nutrient intake of essential nutrients for healthy individuals to prevent deficiency; and is based on gender and age but does no include special needs such as an illness.
    recommended dietary allowances (RDAs)
  6. What was developed by the united states department of agriculture in 1991 and the newest version established in 2005? It was designed as an educational tool for the general public and as educational framework of variety, proportionality, moderation, and activity?
    food pyramid
  7. How many colored bands are included on the food pyramid, and what do they illustrate?
    • six color bands
    • represent: 5 food groups and oils
  8. the caloric recommendations of the food pyramid are based on what?
    • gender
    • age
    • activity level from age 2-76 years
  9. What was coordinated wiht mypyramid food guidance system established by USDA and USDHHS as a basis for a federal nutritional policy that consists of nine major categories since 2005?
    dietary guidelines for Americans, 2005
  10. in regards to the dietary guidelines for americans, 2005; application of standards state that food intake varies with what 3 things in promoting healthy weight and lifestyle?
    • age
    • gender
    • activity level
  11. Nutritional needs _________ with activity and ___________ with increasing age and sedentary lifestyle
    • increase
    • decrease
  12. The dietary guidelines:
    emphasize______________
    promote______________-
    reduce ___________________
    • emphasize: physical activity and caloric control
    • promote: a healthier lifestyle
    • reduce: the risk of chronic disease more than any previous version
  13. name the 5 different food groups in the food pyramid.
    • grains
    • vegetables
    • fruits
    • mild
    • meat and beans
  14. for a 2,000 calorie diet, what amount of each section of the food pyramid do you need every day?
    • grains: 6 oz
    • vegetables: 2 1/2 cups
    • fruits: 2 cups
    • milk: 3 cups
    • meat and beans: 5 1/2 oz
  15. true or false. Nutrition, diet, and oral health are closely related.
    true
  16. What is the gateway to the health of the entire body?
    the oral cavity
  17. vitamin A, B complex and ascorbic acid are relevant vitamins and zinc and iron are relvant minerals to what part of the oral cavity?
    skin and mucous membrane
  18. true or false. Periodontal diseases are not caused by nutritional deficiencies, but malnutrition may contribute to the progression of periodontal disease symptoms and influence how tx can succeed in bringing the tissues back to health
    both are true
  19. do nutritional deficiencies cause periodontal disease? What does?
    • NO
    • bacteria
  20. without local factors including what 3 things; periodontal infections cannot occur.
    • periodontal pathogens in biofilm
    • biofilm retentive factors: calculus, defective restorations
    • lack of pts personal daily care to remove biofilm
  21. true or false. Severe nutritional deficiencies are rare in developed contries.
    true
  22. symptoms of deficiencies may be seen in cases of what 3 things?
    • severe deprivation
    • starvation
    • long-term pts with alcoholism or other drug addictions
  23. true or false. As a part of total body health, the daily diet nourishes the oral tissue. recommended dietary allowances are essetial to the health of the periodontal tissue
    both are true
  24. What type of diet encourages biofilm buildup and proliferation of bacteria, including the periodontal pathogens? (physical character of the diet contributes to it)
    a soft sticky diet that stays on the tooth surfaces, especially cervical third and proximal areas
  25. Malnutrition suppresses the ______________ and so impairs the host's reaction to _______________-
    • immune system
    • infections
  26. increased activity of pathogenic microorganisms may resutl in ____________ periodontal disease
    increased
  27. The elements vitamin B complex, vitamin C, and dietary calcium are all strongly associated with what?
    wound helaing and tissue repair
  28. What nutritional element refers to all the water-soluble vitamins except vitamin C. They are thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, pyridoxine, cobalamin, biotin, folic acid, and pahtothenic acid? Each different member has different functions.
    B complex
  29. What nutritional element is needed for collagen formation and intercellular material, and healing tissues after procedures including scaling and root planing?
    vitamin C
  30. What nutritional element is essential for cell metabolism, muscle contraction, and nerve impulse transmission?
    dietary calcium
  31. What percent of dietary calcium in the body is in the bones and teeth? What percent is in the body tissues and fluids?
    • bones and teeth: 99%
    • body tissues and fluid: 1%
  32. What nutritional element is necessary for the continuous exchange of calcium between the blood, skeletal bones, and other cells?
    Vitamin D
  33. Low dietary intake of calcium can be a risk factor for what disease?
    periodontal disease
  34. What are 2 typical periodontal disease symptoms?
    • loss of alveolar bone
    • loss of soft tissue attachment
  35. current and former smokers show increased severity of periodontal disease, when smokers have low dietary vitamin ____ intake, their periodontal disease is more sever.
    vitamin C
  36. Is there any research to show that the intake of vitamin C can improve periodontal health?
    no
  37. true or false. obesity is a significant predictor of periodontal disease.
    true
  38. a younger population with overall and abdominal obesity shows __________ periodontal disease. underweight individuals have __________ periodontal disease
    • increase
    • decrease
  39. recommendations of firm fibrous foods such as what 2 types may stimulate the oral tissue and improve circulation?
    • raw carrots
    • apples
  40. chewing firm foods increases what? Which acts as a buffer and aids in oral clearance
    salivary flow
  41. a soft diet of high quality protein is indicated for adequate wound healing. What are 5 examples of soft food that have a high quality of protein to promote healing?
    • puddings
    • scrambled eggs
    • milkshakes
    • yogurt
    • cottage cheese
  42. What nutrient functions as: fat soluble, antioxidant, bone and tooth development, skin and mucous membrane integrity, cell differentiation; essential for reproduction, vision in dim light, immune system integrity?
    Vitamin A
  43. What vitamin is defficient with the following:
    night blindness, xerophthalmia, poor growth, keratinizatino of epithelium, dry, scaly skin, toxic in large doses (double vision, hair loss, dry mucous membrane, joint pain, liver damage)
    vitamin A
  44. What vitamin is in egg yolk, liver, fish liver oils, fortified milk, cream cheeses; green leafy vegetables, orange, red, yellow pigmented fruits and vegetables
    Vitamin A
  45. What vitamin functions as: fat soluble, aids in the absorption of calcium and phosphorous, and mineralization of bone?
    Vitamin D
  46. What vitamin is defficient in the following:
    rickets in kids, osteomalacia in adults, osteoporosis, toxic in large doses (calcification of soft tissues, growth retardation)
    Vitamin D
  47. Which vitamin can be attained by exposure to UV sunlight, fortified milk, and fish oils?
    Vitamin D
  48. Which vitamin functions as fat soluble and antioxidant?
    Vitamin E
  49. What vitamin is defficient in the following: low incidenc of deficiency and has low toxicity in high amounts
    Vitamin E
  50. What vitamin can be attained in whole grains, wheat germ, plant oils, margarines, legumes, seeds, nuts, greens?
    Vitamin E
  51. Which vitamin functions as fat soluble, and synthesis of prothrombin in blood clotting and bone protein?
    Vitamin K
  52. What vitamin is defficient with the following:
    prolonged clotting time, hemorrhage, toxic in large doses (pts on blood thinners need to limit the use in their diet)
    Vitamin K
  53. What vitamin is synthesized by intestinal bacterial flora and can be found in dark leafy green vegetables and in the liver?
    Vitamin K
  54. What nutrient functions and acts as a coenzyme in carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism?
    Thiamin (B1)
  55. Which vitamin deficiency would result in: essential for synthesis of acetylcholine for healthy nerves, beriberi: weight loss, fatigue, edema, depression, toxicity: is not seen with this vitamin?
    thiamin (B1)
  56. What nutrient can be found in enriched whole grains and cereals, pork, meats, poultry, nuts, seeds, legumes?
    Thiamin (B1)
  57. Which 2 vitamins are coenzymes in energy metabolism of fat, carbohydrate, and protein?
    • Riboflaven (B2)
    • Niacin (B3)
  58. A deficiency in which vitamin would result in:
    ariboflavinosis, angular cheilosis, growth failure, eye disorders, and toxicity is not seen with this vitamin?
    Riboflavin (B2)
  59. Which vitamin can be found in milk, cheese, enriched and whole grains and cereals, rice, mushrooms, and liver?
    riboflavin (B2)
  60. Which vitamin deficiency would cause the following:
    pellagra: diarrhea, dermatitis, dementia, and death; toxicity is not seen in food sources, but toxicity is seen with large doses of supplements for treatment of hypercholesterolemia (skin redness and flushing, gastric ulcers)?
    niacin (B3)
  61. Which vitamin can be found in enriched whole grains and cereals, rice, meat, poultry, fish, and green leafy vegetables?
    niacin (B3)
  62. Which vitamin is a coenzyme in amino acid and lipid metabolsim; aids in hemoblobin synthesis and homocysteine metabolism?
    Pyridoxine (B6)
  63. Which vitamin deficiency can cause dermatitis, depression, convulsions, peripheral neuritis, toxicity is not seen in food, but toxicity from supplements can result in neuropathy or irreversible nerve damage?
    pyridoxine (B6)
  64. Which vitamin is found in a widespread of food sources with the exception of fat and sugar?
    pyridoxine (B6)
  65. Which vitamin functions in the maturation of RBCs, requires intrinsic factors from parietal cells for absorption, and is a cofactor in folate and homocysteine metabolism?
    Cobalamin (B12)
  66. Which vitamin is deficient in the following:
    pernicious enemia, secondary to lack of intrinsic factor and total vegan diet, and toxicity is not seen with this vitamin?
    cobalamin (B12)
  67. Which vitamin can be found in all animal foods, and fortified cereals?
    cobalamin (B12)
  68. Which nutrient functions in the maturation fo RBCs, DNA synthesis, and nomocysteine metabolism?
    folate (folic acid)
  69. Which vitamin deficiency results in the following:
    megaloblastic anemia, neural tube defects (spina bifida), masks B12 deficiency and toxicity is not seen?
    folate (folic acid)
  70. What nutrient can be found in green leafy vegetables, fruits, legumes, and fortified grains?
    folate (folic acid)
  71. What nutrient functions as an antioxidant, in collagen synthesis, wound healing, and aids in absorption of iron?
    ascorbic acid (Vitamin C)
  72. What nutrient deficiency will result in the following:
    scurvy, poor wound healing, petechial hemorrhages, increased periodontal symptoms, toxicity may result in rebound scurvy
    Ascorbic acid (Vitamin C)
  73. Which nutrient can be found in citrus fruits, broccoli, strawberries, peppers, tomatoes, and canteloupe?
    ascorbic acid (Vitamin C)
  74. Which nutrient functions in muscle contraction, blood clotting, nerve impulse transmission, calcification of bone and tooth structure?
    calcium
  75. What nutrient deficiency may result in the following:
    osteoporosis, incomplete clacification of teeth, compromised alveolar integrity, and toxicity is not seen?
    calcium
  76. Which nutrient is found in dairy products, tofu, fortified organge juice and soy milk, green leafy vegetables, canned salmon and sardine bones?
    calcium
  77. Which nutrient functions and is required for bone and teeth strength, acid-base balance, and muscle contraction?
    phosphorus
  78. a deficiency of what nutrient may result in:
    poor bone maintenance, incomplete calcification of teeth, compromised alveolar integrity; and toxicity may cause skeletal porosity?
    phosphorus
  79. What nutrient can be found in dairy products, meat, poultry, processed foods, soft drinks, nuts, legumes, and whole grain cereals?
    phosphorus
  80. What nutrient functions in bone strength an rigidity, hydroxyapatite crystal formation, nerve impulse, and muscle contraction?
    magnesium
  81. Which nutrient deficiency may result in:
    muscle weakness, alveolar bone fragility, toxicity is seen in medications containing this?
    magnesium
  82. What nutrient can be found in wheat bran, whole grains, green leafy vegetables, legumes, nuts, and chocolate?
    magnesium
  83. What nutrient functions in the prevention of dental caries and remineralization?
    fluoride
  84. What nutrient deficiency may result in:
    increased incidence of caries; and toxicity can cause tooth mottling and enamel hypoplasia
    fluoride
  85. What nutrient is found in fluoridated water, tea, seawee, and toothpaste?
    fluoride
  86. What nutrient functions as a component in hemoglobin, carries oxygen to cells, immune function, and cognitive development?
    iron
  87. a deficiency in what nutrient may cause:
    aneamia: pallor of face, conjunctiva, lips, mucosa, and gingiva; shortness of breath, fatigue, decreased immunity; and toxicity can cause GI upset, pigmentation; seen in persons with hemochromatosis?
    iron
  88. What nutrient can be found in meat, poultry, fish, whole grains, dried fruit, and enriched grains?
    iron
  89. What nutrient functions and is required for over 100 enzymes, normal growth and development, taste and smell sensitivity, sexual development and reproduction, immune integrity, wound healing?
    zinc
  90. What nutritional deficiency may result in: altered taste, growth retardation, decreased wound healing, impaired immunity; and toxicity is rare, but may cause stomach irritation, cramps, diarrhea, and vomiting
    zinc
  91. What nutrient can be found in seafood, meats, whole grains, and greens?
    zinc
  92. What nutrient functions to aid in iron metabolism and collagen formation?
    copper
  93. What nutritional deficiency may result in:
    anemia, poor growth, low WBC, bone demineralization, tissue fragility, decreased trabeculae of alveolar bone; and toxicity causes vomiting and diarrhea?
    copper
  94. What nutrient can be found in whole grains, nuts, dried fruits, meats, legumes, shell fish, and organs?
    copper
  95. List 4 oral symptoms of nutrient deficiencies associated with the tongue:
    • altered taste sensation
    • glossitis
    • glossodynia
    • sore or burning tongue
  96. List 4 oral symptoms associated with mucosal tissue from nutrient defficiencies:
    • angular cheilosis
    • candidiasis
    • delayed wound healing
    • mucositis/stomatitis
  97. List 4 oral symptoms associated with periodontal tissue and tooth development from nutrient deficiencies:
    • decreased alveolar bone integrity
    • inflammed, bleeding gingiva
    • mineralization of teeth
    • altered enamel development
  98. Name 4 minerals and 1 vitamin that are relevant and essential for healthy tooth structure:
    • minerals: calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, and fluoride
    • vitamin: Vitamin A
  99. What is the essential mineral for dental caries prevention?
    fluoride
  100. What are 4 factors involved in the development of dental caries that act together and caries result?
    • microorganisms
    • cariogenic diet
    • salivary factors
    • tooth resistance
  101. What is a result of excess cariogenic foods, not a nutrient deficiency?
    caries
  102. fermentable carbohydrates produce what when acted on by specific biofilm microorganisms?
    acids
  103. What are 2 types of microorganisms that use fermentable carbohydrate from the diet to produce acids?
    • streptococcus mutans
    • lactobacilli
  104. What type of consistency of food encourage biofilm accumulation, and aids in leading to increased acid formation, and how?
    • soft sticky foods: cling to the teeth and gingiva
    • microorganisms are protected and nourished in dental biofilm of the tooth
  105. What are 4 factors of prevention and control in the counseling for dental caries control?
    • control of dental biofilm
    • modification of intake of sugars and cariogenic food
    • strengthening the tooth surface to resist caries activity
    • presence of saliva is essential: xerostomia increases the risk for demineralization
  106. What are 3 preventive measures that support dietary control in the counseling for dental caries control?
    • pit and fissure sealants
    • restoration of existing carious lesions
    • implementation of fluoride therapy
  107. What are 2 purposes of dietary assessment?
    • identify the pt who may be at nutritional and oral health risk
    • plan with the pt for necessary changes to improve the health of the oral mucosa and periodontium, and prevent dental caries
  108. Information obtained from medical, dental, and social histories is essential in assessing oral health and nutritional status what are 6 things to look for in these histories?
    • disease states
    • medications
    • disabilities
    • learning limitations
    • significant unintentional changes in body weight
    • factors influencing food use and food intake
  109. Dietary influences can be identified by ______________ examination which may reveal oral tissue that is suggestive of nutritional deficiencies.
    intra and extraoral exams
  110. What type of form used for dietary assessment is described?
    diary of pts intake over previous 24 hrs; obtained by interview w/pt; assesses nutrients, food groups, diet inadequacy, form and frequency of the carb intake, and snacking patterns; results are reveiwed; it is quick and easy and done chairside, but it is not necessarily representative of pts normal diet
    food diary
  111. What type of form used for dietary assessment is described?
    more accurate account of a pts intake; pt completes food diary for 3-7 days inclusive of 1 weekend day; affords pt a more active role in the assessmeht; provide pt with 3-7 copies of food diary and have pt return it; it is evaluated for eating patterns, consumption and frequency of fermentable carbohydrates, and nutritional adequacy?
    dietary analysis recording form
  112. There are 3 principle parts of the food diary to analyze, what are they?
    • number of servings in each food group
    • frequency of cariongenci food
    • consistency of diet
  113. Is frequency or quantity of carbohydrate intake more relevant in caries incidence?
    frequency
  114. What is a common misconception about conentrated sugar?
    as an indespensable energy source
  115. The sucrose from cariogenic food on the tooth surface can be changed to acid within ____________.
    minutes
  116. What is the critical pH level for demineralization of enamel?
    below 5.5
  117. How long will it take for acid left undisturbed to be cleared from the mouth by salivary flow?
    40 minutes to 2 hrs
  118. Why are cariogenic foods taken after brushing and flossing before retiring are not cleared readily?
    because salivary flow decreases during sleep
  119. are cariogenic liquids or solids removed from the teeth in less time?
    liquids
  120. What type of food are not metabolized by bacteria and are recommended bo be eaten at the end of a meal?
    protein and fat
  121. What type of food can be eaten after sweets of at the end of a meal to prevent the decrease in pH and production of acids in the oral cavity?
    cheese
  122. true or false. natural sugars are just as detrimental as refined sugars.
    TRUE

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