Antibiotics 1

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eschott
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78893
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Antibiotics 1
Updated:
2011-04-11 16:13:29
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penicillinV, methicillin, ampicillin, ticarcillin, cefazolin, cefotetan, ceftazidine, cefipime, imipenem, aztreonam, vancomycin, daptomycin, cilastin, clavulanate
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  1. What's the mechanism of action of Penicillin?
    Block cell wall synthesis by inhibition of peptidoglycan cross-linking
  2. What's the mechanism of action of beta-lactams?
    Block cell wall synthesis by inhibition of peptidoglycan cross linking.
  3. What's the mechanism of action of glycopeptides?
    Block peptidoglycan synthesis.
  4. What's the mechanism of action of cephalosporins?
    Block cell wall synthesis by inhibition of peptidoglycan cross-linking
  5. What's the mechanism of action of carbecephams?
    Block cell wall synthesis by inhibition of peptidoglycan cross-linking
  6. What's the mechanism of action of lipopeptides?
    Intereference of cell membrane potential.
  7. What's the mechanism of action of polymixins?
    Disruptio nof bacterial cell membranes.
  8. What's the mechanism of action of oxazoladinones (linezolid)?
    Block protein synthesis at 50S ribosomal subunit.
  9. What's the mechanism of action of tetracyclines?
    Block protein synthesis at 30S ribosomal subunit.
  10. What's the mechanism of action of aminoglycosides?
    Block protein synthesis at 30S ribosomal subunit.
  11. What's the mechanism of action of chloramphenicol?
    Block protein synthesis at 50S ribosomal subunit.
  12. What's the mechanism of action of lincosamines?
    Block protein synthesis at 50S ribosomal subunit.
  13. What's the mechanism of action of macrolides?
    Block protein synthesis at 50S ribosomal subunit.
  14. What's the mechanism of action of type B streptogramins?
    Block protein synthesis at 50S ribosomal subunit.
  15. What's the mechanism of action of ketolides?
    Block protein synthesis by binding to ribosomal subunits and may also inhibit the formation of newly forming ribosomes
  16. What's the mechanism of action of sulfonamides?
    Block nucleotide synthesis.
  17. What's the mechanism of action of trimethoprim?
    Block nucleotide synthesis.
  18. What's the mechanism of action of fluoroquinilones?
    Block DNA topoisomerases.
  19. What's the mechanism of action of nitromidazole?
    Metronidazole metabolites are taken up into bacterial DNA, and form unstable molecules
  20. What's the mechanism of action of rifamycin?
    Binds to RNA polymerase to prevent RNA synthesis.
  21. Minimum inhibitory concentration - (MIC)
    lowest concentration that inhibits growth after 18-24 h in vitro
  22. Minimum bactericidal concentration - (MBC)
    lowest concentration at which 99.9% of a culture is killed after18-24 h incubation in vitro
  23. Post-antibiotic effect (PAE)
    when suppression of bacterial growth continues after the antibioticconcentration falls below the bacterial MIC
  24. Concentration-dependent killing
    bactericidal effects increase with increased concentration of antibiotic
  25. Time-dependent killing
    bactericidal effects occur only during the time when the antibiotic is maintainedabove the MIC
  26. Superinfection
    a second “opportunistic” infection occurring during the course of antimicrobial therapy,can be due in part to loss of normal oral or gut flora
  27. Protein binding
    protein binding varies greatly among the different antibiotics; binding in the plasma is asaturatable process; only the protein-free antibiotic can have antimicrobial activity
  28. What enzyme is targeted in the inhibition of proteoglycan synthesis?
    • Transglycosylase
    • (vancomyocin, teicoplanin)
  29. What enzyme is targeted in the inhibition of proteoglycan cross-linking?
    • Transpeptidase - D-alanyl-D-alanine analogue substrate
    • (β-lactams, penicillins, cephalosporins, monobactams, carbepenems, carbacephem)
  30. What are the mechanisms of action of b-lactams?
    • Covalent binding of D-ala-D-ala to transpeptidase
    • Binding to Penicillin binding proteins
    • Activate autolyic enzymes that break down cell wall
  31. What are the mechanisms ofor restance for b-lactams?
    • Penicillinases
    • Decreased affinity of PBPs
    • Decreased membrane permeability
    • Efflux pumps
  32. What are adverse effects of b-Lactams?
    Hypersensitivity, Diarrrhea (young), CV fluid overload, CNS effects (renal failure), coagulation defects
  33. Where are penicillins distributed to?
    Everywhere but CSF
  34. What's the metabolism/elimination of penicillins?
    Renal secretion of unmetabolized drug
  35. What are the natural penicillins and their routes of ?

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