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what are culture-bound syndromes?
they only appear in certain cultures
What are 3 examples of culture bound syndromes?
- 1) karo- in males in Asia. Belief that gentetals will eventually get sucked up inside body
- 2) susto- south american, Indians- belief that all of a sudden the soul leaves the body
- 3)anorexia- u.s., europe, austria- extreme self starvation to the point of going below 85% body weight
What is the DSM-IV-TR axis system
- Diagnosit and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders
- A checklist with disorders and definitions used for diagnosing and labeling disorders
What do the 5 axis of the DSM contain?
- Axis 1- clinical disorders that you can grow out of
- Axis 2-chronic/ long term conditions. Includes personality disorder and mental retardation
- Axis 3- medical/ physical conditions
- Axis 4- social and environmental problems impacting treatment
- Axis 5- GAF Global Assessment Functioning 1-100, 100 being the highest level of functioning
What are anxiety disorders?
anxiety disorders have one main excessive symptom.
What is free-floating anxiety?
worry, fear, stressed with no realistic reason why
what is a phobia?
a phobia is an irrational, persistant fear of an object, situation, or social activity
what is an example of a phobia?
how does the fear with a phobia differ from normal fear?
a normal fear is small and will not effect your daily life. a phobia will. such as having a phobia of heights, so you dont take a job on the 2nd floor `
what is a social phobia?
a social phobia is a fear of negative evaluation in social situations. People with this often become home bound
What is a Specific Phobia?
fear of specific objects and situations
what are examples of a specific phobia?
how could acrophobia interfere with someones career options?
Acrophobia is the fear of heights, so someone with acrophobia would not take a job on the 2nd or higher floor or as a window washer, etc.
what is a panic attack?
- a panic attack is a sudden, intense panic; multiple and physical emotional symptoms.
- often diagnosed by a medical doctor
what is a panic disorder with agoraphobia?
Why do people with this disorder become home bound?
- agoraphobia is the fear of a place or situation in which escape is difficult. Someone with a panic disorder with agoraphobia would have a panic attack in anunfamilure public place.
- People become home bound because of fear of unfamilure places and they feel comfortable in their own homes
What is OCD?
disorder in which intruding, recurring thoughts or obsessions create anxiety that is relieved by performing a repetitive, ritualistic behavior (compulsion)
What are the 2 core symptoms of OCD?
- Obsession- thought you cannot get out of your head. "Did i lock my child in the car?"
- Cumpulsion- behavior you feel like you have to do. EX: checking to see if your child is in the car, hording, or shopping.
What is hoarding and what anxiety disorder would have this symptom?
- Hoarding is where you keep basically everything.
- Someone with OCD would be likely to have this symptom
what is a generalized anxiety disorder?
feelings of dread, doom and physical stress lasting at least 6 months.
How would someone with the psychodynamic view explain the reasons for anxiety disorders?
How would someone with a Behavioral view explain the reasons for anxiety disorders?
they would say that they are reinforced because you avoid doing something, so it is reinforced to avaid doing that thing.``
How would someone with a Cognitive view explain the reasons for anxiety dissorders?
- they would say that it is because of:
- Magnification- think things are worse than they actually are
- All or Nothing- I must be perfect to be any good
- Overgeneralization- one bad thing reflects whole life. They believe that if they are bad at that one thing like baseball then thay are bad at everything like art.
- Minimization- person downplays good qualities and cannot take a compliment.
How would someone with a Biological view explain the reasons for anxiety disorders?
they would say it is because of a seratonin embalnace or GABA
What is Hypochondrasis?
- terrified of being sick, repeated visits to doctor
- Type of Somatoform Disorder
How does hypocondrasis disorder differ from Somatization disorder?
- somatization has complaints about specific symptoms, but no reall physical cause.
- Hypocondrasis only has vauge complaints with no specific symptoms of what is wrong, even though there is no cause for this either.
What is Conversion Disorder?
Loss of sensory motor function by no real physical cause; results from significant stressor.
What are dissociative disorders?
break in conscious awareness, memory, and/or sense of identity
what is dissociative amnesia?
- memory loss of personal info. related to a traumatic event.
- There is no physical cause
- Ex: if raped, loose the memory of it.
How si dissociative fugue different from dissociative amnesia?
Fugue involves amnesia while traveling while amnesia itself does not involve travel.
What is dissociative fugue?
- travel from familure surroundings after a tramatic event.
- Amnesia for trip and possibly peronal identity.
- Ex: man after wedding day
what is DID?
- Dissociative Identity Dissorder
- a multiple personality dissorder where the person seems to have 2 or more distinct personalities.
- caused by a tramatic event in the past
- have a core personality and other smaller ones
- have blackouts- where the core personality willnot remember the alternative personalities.
What are the controversies concerning DID?
- some therapist may hypnotise the person to see if they have this disorder and in someway may phrase the question to wear it emplies they have it.
- Ex: " Do you feel as if you have other people in your head?"
What is affect?
an emotional reaction
what are mood disorders?
- the mood is severly disturbed
- person with mood disorder experiences emotions that are extreme
What is dysthymia?
- moderate depression
- have symptoms two years or more
- caused by an external stressor
How does dysthymia differ from major depression?
Major depression is severe depression with no apparent external cause. while dysthymia has an external cause.
what is bipolar dissorder?
What might mania look like in a person?
- severe mood swings, severe depression and mania
- Mania would be like when a person became very energetic.
- Ex: the mother who is sad and depressed and then one day is like "Let's go do something exciting!"
How do psychodynamic theorists explain depression?
they say that it is because the person is angry at someone else and they turn to being angry at someone else.
Which neurotransmitters have been linked to mood swings?
what is schizophrania?
What are the positive and negative symptoms?
- severly dosordered thinking, bizare behavior, inability to seperate fantasy from reality.
- Positive- exesses of , or additions to normal behavior Ex: delusions and hallucinations
- Negative- less than or an absence of normal behavior. Ex: not a lot of facial expressions, dont talk much,poor attention
What are the different types of Schizophrenia?
- Disorganized- hallucinations, confused speech, inappropriate emotion, social impairments (wierd)
- Catatonic- stay in one position for long periods of time mixed with wild, agitated movement and talking
- Paranoid- delusions of persecution, grandeur, and jealousy, together with hallucinations that are tied in with their paranoya.
In which category of schitzophrenia would you place the following:
4) socail withdrawl
- 1) hallucinations- seeing or hearing things that don't exist. Positive
- 2) delusions- unshareable, false belifs. Positive
what are the most common of the 5 senses to be involved in hallucinations?
what are delusions of:
- 1) persecution- think people are out to get you or are following you
- 2) grandeur- you are a lot better than you really are, more important or special . You are GRAND!
- 3)refference- messages are being sent directly to you through the tv, a book, etc.
- 4) influence- think other people are controlling you
What are personality disorders?
- lifelong - axis 2
- persistent, rigid, maladaptive behavior interfearing with normal social interaction
what is antisocial personality disorder?
- no morals or conscience, impulsive, lacks regard for consequences, mean.
- A serial killer is likely to have this
- they use their relationships to use people if they need something, for entertainment because they are bored, whatever.
What is borderline personality disorder?
- moody, unstable, unclear sense of identity, clings to others.
- They dont have a sense of identity so they are likely to do as others do.
- Quick to say "I Love You" or name you thier BFF within 5 min.
what is seasonal effective disorder?
What is the cause?
How is it treated?
- seasonal effective dissorder- axis 1. depressive dissorder where you only get depressed during the cold dark months.
- cause- body's biological reaction to lack of sunlight
- treatment- phototherapy (light)
What are insight and action therapies?
insight therapy has the goal of getting greater understanding of the problem while action therapy just wants to stop th problem or "action"
what is biomedical therapy?
therapy that tries to improve someone's mental health by using physical treatment such as surgery
what is psychotherapy?
try to improve someones mental health by talking to them
what is psychoanalysis?What techniques are used?
psychoanalysis is therapy to reveal unconciuos conflicts. It uses free association techniques where the patient talks about anything that comes to mind without fear of critisism. they lay on a couch facing away from the therapist so that they cannot see his ractions. They also use dream interpretation.
1)In dream interpretaion, how is manifest content differnet from latent content?
2)Which would you report when keeping a dream journal?
3)Which would a psychoanalysis try to reveal?
- 1)manifest content- the actual dream and its events
- latent content- the hidden, symbolic meaning of those events that would, if correctly interprested, reveal the unconscious conflicts that were creating the nervous disorder.
- 3) latent
what is free association?
the patients freely said whatever came to mind without fear of being negatively judged. as the patients talk, they reveal hidden, uncouncious concerns.
Is Rogerian person-center therapy directive of non-directive?
non-directive because the person(patient) is the center of the therapy and they do the talking, basically all the work.
What are the goals of a person-centered therapist?
- 1) Reflection- a mirroring of clients words as not to direct the client in a specific direction.
- 2)Unconditional positive regard- being warm, accepting, and uncritical. Having respect for the clients goals
- 3) Empathy
- 4) Authenticity- be genuine, open and honest in responces to client
What is behavior modification?
the use of conditioning techniques to modify behavior
what is systematic desensitization?
WHat is involved in this type of treatment?
- systematic desensitization- the therapist guides the client through a series of steps to reduce fear and anxiety.
- Steps: 1) relaxation training 2) Fear of hierarchy (start with the object that causes the least fear and work up to the one that causes the most while in a relaxed state so that persons fear is paired with relaxation and is thus lessened) 3)Progressive exposure ( the person proceedes to their next fear until the phobia is gone.)
What is flooding?
- exposure to the object the patient fears. the exposure is rapid and intense and produces extinction of conditiond fear.
- Ex: if someone has a fear of dogs, they could be placed in a room with a small dog and not allowed to leave. After seeing that nothing bad happens, the fear will leave within a few sessions.
what is aversion conditioning?
- aversion therapy- reduces the frequency of undisirable behaviors, such as smoking or overeating, by teaching the client to pair an unplesant stimulus that results in the undesirable response.
- Ex: the client wishes to stop smoking, so they are forced to puff on a cigarette every 5 to 6 seconds and it makes them feel nausaous and dizzy.
what is congnitive- behavior therapy?
- learning to think more rationaly and logically
- 1)relieve symptoms and help clients resolve problmes
- 2)help clients develope strategies that can be used to cope with future problems
- 3) help clients change the wat they think from irrational, self-defeating thoughts to more rational, self- helping, positive thoughts
what is raional-emotive behavior therapy?
- helping people realize life can be good without being perfect.
- Ex: "im shy"
- "well u are talking to me"
- " but i know u"
- "u didnt always. why dont u talk to someone u dont know on the bus on the way home and then give yourself a treat after"
what is group therapy?
- a group of clients with simalr problems together and have group discussions of problems under the guidence of a single therapist.
- Advantages: lower cost, exposure to the ways in which other ppl view and handle same situations, opportunity to see how person interacts with others, social and emotional support, usually more successfull.
- Disadvantages- secrets and fears revieled to lots of ppl, client must share therapists time, extremely shy person may have difficulty speaking in group, people with severe dissorders such as schizophernia may have problems tolerating this setting.
what is EMDR?
what are its criticisms?
Eye-movement Desensitization Reprocessing(EMDR) – moveeyes rapidly backand forth while thinking of disturbing memory that can lesson the anxiety of it.
what are antipsychotic drugs?
What sort of symptoms do they treat?
- antipsychotic drugs- drugs used to treat psychotic symptoms such as hallucinations and bizare behavior. They reduce the effect of dopamine.
- Treat: excessive symptoms such as delusions or halllucinations
what disorder would be treated with lithium?
What is psychotherapy?
how helpful is psychotherapy in large studies?
- 75-95% effective
what is ECT?
when would a physician or psychologist recomend it?
Which disorder is it currently used to treat?
- ECT- Electroconvulsive Therapy- used to treat severe depression in which electrodes are placed on either one or both sides of a persons head and an electrent current is passed throught he electrodes that is strong enough to cause a seizure.
what is psychosurgery?
what is involved in prefrontal lobotomy or bilateral cingulotomy?
- psychosurgery- cutting into the brain to remove or destroy brain tissue for the purpose of relieving symptoms of mental dissorders
- prefrontal lobotomy- the connections of the prefrontal lobes of the brain to the rest of the brain are severed.
- bilateral cingulotomy-deep lesioning of cingulate gyrusvia electrode wire