510 Chapter 9

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juju_0025
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510 Chapter 9
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2011-04-11 17:36:15
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Theories Design Counseling
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Study guide for Final
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  1. What did Fritz Perls say about counselors' use of questions?
    Through questioning, counselors can help clients see their own behavior more clearly.
  2. According to Gestalt psychotherapy, people have problems because
    They are cut off from parts of themselves that they need for wholeness, integration, and balance.
  3. In Gestalt theory, what happens when through life experience we discover that some parts of ourselves are unacceptable?
    We fragment ourselves and deny that part of ourselves, leaving us less than whole.
  4. How does healing occur in Gestalt therapy?
    Split-off parts of the self and the world are re-integrated so that our natural tendency toward equilibrium can guide us.
  5. What theorist is most associated with Gestalt psychotherapy?
    Fritz Perls
  6. What is the relationship between Gestalt psychology and Gestalt therapy?
    Gestalt therapists see close kinship between Gestalt psychology and Gestalt therapy; Gestalt psychologists often deny any meaningful similarity.
  7. What Gestalt psychology concept says that when stimuli are close together, they tend to form one perceptual unit?
    proximity
  8. What Gestalt psychology concept says that when incomplete figures are perceived, the mind usually completes the figure?
    closure
  9. What Gestalt psychology concept says that we organize what we see into a shape in the foreground and a rather formless background?
    figure/ground relations
  10. Which of the following adequately captures how our environment affects the figure/ground premise?
    The figure emerges based on need or habit and the ground recedes, but when the need is met or attention shifts, the ground becomes a new figure.
  11. Fritz Perls linked his conceptualization of the term "organismic self-regulation" to the Gestalt psychology principle of
    closure
  12. What is the key to positive growth and personal integration in Gestalt therapy?
    The client's heightened sense of awareness.
  13. What is meant by awareness in the context of Gestalt therapy?
    The capacity to be in touch with your own existence; to notice what is happening around or inside you; to connect with the environment, other people and yourself; to know what you are feeling or sensing or thinking.
  14. What is the relationship between behavior change and awareness in Gestalt therapy?
    Gestalt therapists encourage awareness rather than trying to directly influence behavior change, assuming that the behavior change will grow out of fuller awareness.
  15. What do Gestalt therapists conceptualize as clients' most important problems?
    Conflicts within the individual
  16. In the context of Gestalt therapy, what is meant by "catastrophic expectations?"
    If as children we act independently and spontaneously only to find ourselves severely punished or rejected, we grow up to think that following our impulses is dangerous.
  17. Adult vs child, worried vs carefree, loving vs hateful, and strong vs weak are all examples of the Gestalt concept of
    polarities
  18. When used in a Gestalt context, the term homeostasis means that the client is
    centered, psychologically hovering in the middle between polarities.
  19. Fritz Perls substituted Freud's superego-id conflict with
    the metaphor of a battle between top-dog and under-dog
  20. Which of the following does Gestalt therapy share with psychodynamic and humanistic theories?
    The belief that the inability to accept opposites within one's self constitutes psychological distress.
  21. What was the name of Fritz Perls' autobiography?
    "In and Out of the Garbage Pail"
  22. How did Perls conceptualize the communication between counselor and client?
    Much like humanistic theorists, Perls believed that empathic contact between the counselor and client was critical for therapy to succeed.
  23. Fritz Perls used the term "boundaries" to mean the
    lines between ourselves and others that both connect us and separate us.
  24. In Gestalt terms, what causes anxiety?
    Anticipating that we do not or will not have the support we need.
  25. What did Perls mean by the term "impasse?"
    A state in which a person's habitual support system is absent and he or she has not gained the use of new supports.
  26. If you were a Gestalt therapist, what would you be talking about if you mentioned a "should" in a session?
    A tactic of neurotic self-regulation that the client might want to better understand.
  27. ________ are distortions in perceptions of borders: failure to make accurate contact with self and others as individuals.
    Contact boundary disturbances
  28. If a Gestalt therapist wrote about "introjection" in his or her case notes on a client, the therapist would mean that the client is
    taking in other's views and values to the point where they seen like his or her own.
  29. If a Gestalt therapist wrote about "projection" in his or her case notes on a client, the therapist would mean that the client is
    assigning undesired parts of him or herself to others, especially when he or she feels guilty or angry.
  30. If a Gestalt therapist wrote about "retroflection" in his or her case notes on a client, the therapist would mean that the client is
    directing an action or thought toward him or herself rather than toward others.
  31. If a Gestalt therapist wrote about "deflection" in his or her case notes on a client, the therapist would mean that the client is
    failing to make accurate contact with self and others as individuals.
  32. In the context of Gestalt therapy, what is meant by the term "confluence?"
    The client identifies with another person so much that the client's psychosocial boundary with the other person becomes blurred.
  33. If you have generally good feelings about a fellow student, but you never approach him in the hallway because you have automatically ruled out being so forward with people you don't know, you would be exhibiting what Gestaltists would call
    disowning
  34. What is meant by intrusion of unfinished business?
    Unresolved emotions and issues from the past affect the present.
  35. Which of the following is an example of unfinished business?
    Transference
  36. How would the attitudes and behaviors of a counselor with a Gestalt theoretical orientation compare to those of a counselor with a person-centered theoretical orientation?
    The Gestalt counselor would act bored, irritated, or impatient if that's the way he or she felt, whereas the person-centered counselor would practice unconditional positive regard and display empathy.
  37. Which of the following behaviors would identify a therapist as a Gestaltist?
    She refuses to protect the client from discomfort and responsibility.
  38. Why is the process of Gestalt therapy so hard to pin down?
    It has a greater range of acceptable practices than any other system.
  39. Which of the following best describes the Gestalt therapy process?
    Peeling off layers of neurosis.
  40. In describing the process of successively removing layers of neuroses, Perls meant by the "phony layer," the level at which the client
    responds to his or her environment in stereotypical ways, manipulating situations according to habit, and behaving inauthentically in social settings.
  41. In describing the process of successively removing layers of neuroses, Perls meant by the "phobic layer," the level at which the client
    feels fearful and helpless but keeps the feelings hidden.
  42. In describing the process of successively removing layers of neuroses, Perls meant by the "impasse layer," the level at which the client
    feels that he or she is stuck and doesn't know what the next move should be. This is the point where people often seek help.
  43. In describing the process of successively removing layers of neuroses, Perls meant by the "implosive layer," the level at which the client
    feels dead inside or cut off from his or her former self.
  44. In describing the process of successively removing layers of neuroses, Perls meant by the "explosive layer," the level at which the client
    lets go of the old self.
  45. At what stage of Perls's model of the Gestalt therapy does Miriam Polster's model start?
    impasse
  46. What is the main technique used by a counselor in Gestalt Therapy?
    There is no main Gestalt technique.
  47. The most powerful Gestalt interventions are
    focused in the present, are awareness-oriented rather than discussed, and are based on understanding that important personal learning is made through a discovery process.
  48. How does the Gestalt concept of "repression" compare with Freud's?
    Freud emphasized the "content" of repression, whereas Gestaltists emphasize the "process" of repression.
  49. What do Gestalt therapists mean when they refer to a "safe emergency?"
    A combination of aroused anxiety and the therapist's affirmation and support, creating an atmosphere where creative adjustment to the natural self is possible.
  50. The hands-on methods of working with neuroses encoded in bodily systems shows influences of ______ systems.
    eastern
  51. The ______ theory of change states that "trying" to reach an ideal gets you stuck in the same patterns.
    paradoxical
  52. Which of the following would NOT be a goal of a Gestalt therapist who is prescribing "experimentation?"
    Sharing his or her expertise at problem-solving by suggesting a solution to the problem.
  53. Which of the following best describes the goals of the Gestalt technique of role playing?
    Resolving unfinished business and integrating the client's polarities by arousing emotions, discovering needs, and shifting his or her point of view.
  54. Who pioneered the use of psychodrama?
    J. L. Moreno
  55. The _________ technique has been credited with facilitating depth of experiencing, integrating polarities, and providing conflict resolution.
    empty chair
  56. Which of the following is NOT identified in the text as a counselor skill necessary for utilization of the empty chair technique?
    To uncover hidden meaning in the client's dialogue.
  57. How does Gestalt dream work primarily differ from psychoanalytic or Jungian dream work?
    Gestalt therapists reenact the dream in the present.
  58. In psychodrama, the client whose experience is being dramatized acts as the
    director
  59. With what famous establishment in California was Fritz Perls associated with from 1964 to 1969?
    Esalen Institute
  60. _________ refers to the process that occurs when group members identify with an interaction between the therapist and another group member, and are aware of their own inner responses to what went on.
    Spectator learning
  61. Which of the following was NOT a finding of Frew's 1988 survey of Gestalt and Gestalt-oriented therapists in the United States?
    Most of the respondents ranked "spectator learning" as the most important factor in group therapy.
  62. Language modification in Gestalt therapy involves substituting language of _______ for language of ________.
    responsibility; avoidance
  63. What role have women played in Gestalt therapy?
    Gestalt is one of the few theories that has involved strong women in its development from the very beginning.
  64. A man who decides to raise children while his partner works for a paycheck may be considered less of a man by those adhering to restricted sex roles. According to Gestalt, this man would be in danger of __________, choosing a less fulfilling role.
    splitting-off
  65. How do Gestalt therapist treat survivors of traumatic events?
    They refuse to explain current problems in terms of past traumas. Rather, Gestalt therapists would place past trauma that is still active into the category of unfinished business.
  66. _________ occurs when a client can only see others as all good or all bad.
    Splitting
  67. How do Gestaltists view the notion of the mind/body split?
    They reject the idea of a clear split and view symptoms of psychopathology as appearing in emotion, thought, behavior, and body.
  68. What group of clients is unlikely to be helped by Gestalt therapy?
    delinquents, sociopaths, and clients with poorly developed empathy
  69. How does a Gestalt therapist usually terminate therapy?
    Consistent with the focus on client responsibility, the counselor leaves it up to the client to decide to continue or to terminate therapy.
  70. Which of the following was NOT listed in the textbook as characteristic of Fritz Perls?
    He was more unselfish and thoughtful than most of his followers.
  71. Which of the following is NOT discussed in the textbook as a multicultural implication of Gestalt therapy?
    The Gestalt emphasis on sensuality over rationality resonates with women of all cultural backgrounds.

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