Vocabulary

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Author:
pomea1
ID:
78967
Filename:
Vocabulary
Updated:
2011-04-11 21:23:03
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Science 9E
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Description:
DNA Structure and Replication Reproduction Notes Meiosis Notes and Worksheet Genetic Variation Notes
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  1. Nucleotide
    • a compound consisting of a nucleoside linked to a phosphate group. Nucleotides form the basicstructural unit of nucleic acids such as DNA.
    • components:
    • 1. deoxyribose sugar
    • 2. a phosphate group
    • 3. one of four nitrogenous bases
    • (A) Adenine
    • always together
    • (T) Thymine
    • (C) Cytosine
    • always together
    • (G) Guanine
  2. Deoxyribose Sugar
    One of the components of a nucleotide, contains 5 carbon atoms
  3. Phosphate Group
    One of the components of a nucleotide
  4. Nitrogenous base
    • One of four nitrogenous bases
    • (A) Adenine
    • always together
    • (T) Thymine
    • (C) Cytosine
    • always together
    • (G) Guanine
  5. Adenine
    One out of the four acid compounds, always together with Thymine.
  6. Thymine
    One out of the four acid compounds, always together with Adenine.
  7. Cytosine
    One out of the four acid compounds, always together with Guanine.
  8. Guanine
    One out of the four acid compounds, always together with Cytosine.
  9. Complementary base pairing
    Pairs of DNA that fit together.
  10. Double Helix
    a pair of parallel helices intertwined about a common axis, esp. that in the structure of the DNA molecule.
  11. Replication
    The action of copying or reproducing something. One of the exact same.
  12. Sexual Reproduction
    The production of offspring by combining genetic material from two parent organisms. Offspring are genetically different from parents.
  13. Asexual Reproduction
    Offspring are genetically identical to parents.
  14. Somatic Cells
    Body Cells, or somatic cells, of every species have a characteristic number of chromosomes. Humans have 46 chromosomes (23 pairs).
  15. Gametes
    Sex cells are referred to as. Contain only 23 chromosomes, combine to produce offspring.
  16. Egg
    Female.
  17. Sperm
    Male.
  18. Fertilization
    The fusion of the nuclei of male and female gametes. (Egg + Sperm)
  19. Zygote
    • The single cell formed during fertilization.
    • Male Gamete + Female Gamete = Zygote
    • n+n=2n
  20. Haploid
    A cell with only one complete set of chromosomes.
  21. Diploid
    A cell that contains two complete sets of chromosomes.
  22. Homologous Chromosome Pair
    All human somatic cells contain 46 chromosomes, arranged in 23 pairs each of the 23 pairs.
  23. Tetrad
    2 chromosomes together
  24. Crossing over
    • the exchange of genes between homologous chromosomes, resulting in a mixture of parental
    • characteristics in offspring.
  25. Phases of Meiosis
    • Prophase I
    • Metaphase I
    • Anaphase I
    • Telophase I
    • Cytokinesis I

    • Prophase II
    • Metaphase II
    • Anaphase II
    • Telophase II
    • Cytokinesis II
  26. Independent assortment of chromosomes
    The process of random segregation and assortment of chromosomes during anaphase I ofmeiosis resulting in the production of genetically unique gametes.

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