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The New Left
-Students for a Democratic Society
--The Port Huron statement
by Hayden. Focused on the fact that large orgs create an absence of individ freedom in modern life. Students had power to restore participatory dem by gaining control of edu process, ect.
The new left: Free Speech Movement
Origins at Berkeley, led by Mario Savio, grew into general criticism of modern university and depersonalized bureaucracy.
effects of the new left, and its downfall
Role of Vietnam War in radicalizing youth – they avoided drafts, staged sit ins, protests.
Increased college protests – Columbia u wanted to displace an af am neighborhood to build a gym, the gov occupied many buildings and settled the dispute.
The 1968 Democratic convention – polarization of society reached a climax. Yippies wanted to create anarchy in Chicago streets, yippie riots angered middle class and the gov.
The breakup of the New Left – bc they abandoned their original pacifist principles. The larger anti-war mvmt was also fading.
- Origins and philosophy – descendants of the beats. Were mostly alienated well-edu middle class whites (like the new left). They believed that complacent materialism had settled over urban and suburban life.
- Communal living – San Fran Height-Ashbury district, NY East Village, Atlanta’s 14th Street, rural areas.
- Woodstock and Altamont – rock concerts, the latter ended in violence/crime.
- Downfall of the counterculture – by 1969 became counterproductive and faddish.
Betty Friedan's The Feminine Mystique – housewives = miserable. Inspired many women who felt trapped/frustrated.
National Organization for Women – initially sought to end discrim in workplace and went on to start efforts to legalize abortion and gain fed/state support for child care centers.
Legal gains – colleges required to ensure = opp for women. Roe v. wade struck down laws forbidding abortions during first 3 mo of pregnancy.
Divisions within the movement – b/w moderate and radical feminists.
Changes in traditional sex roles – women gained greater econ and pol influence.
"Chicanos" – used as an inclusive label of all mex immigrants, sp ams, and old CA’s w/ mixed ancestry.
Cesar Chavez & United Farm Workers – joined thousands of migrant farm workers together.
Community Service Org – a social-service group that sought to edu and org the migrant poor so they could become self-reliant.
Growth of Hispanic population – the country’s largest minority.
Political power – their concentration in key electoral states led them to have a significant pol influence.
- Conditions that fostered concern – ↑unemp, ↑white’s guilt, ↑suicide rate of Indians.
- The American Indian Movement – founded to promote red power, increased legal recognition of their tribal rights, financial compensation, and ↑ standard of living.
- The Stonewall riots- encouraged people to come out, and help with the gar rights mvmt.
- Internal divisions and conservative backlash – disputes of tactics and objectives, Christian fundamentalists launched a counterattack. The mvmt lost momentum by the end of the 70s.
Nixon and the "silent majority"
- mostly white working and middle class who were determined to regain control of a society they feared was filled with anarchy and tyranny by the minority.
- They believed LBJ’s great society programs were ineffective and inefficient.
Nixon's Vietnam policy
- American demands at the Paris peace talks – demanded the withdrawal of comm forces from s vet and the preservation of the US backed regime of pres Nguyen Van Thieu.
- On the second front – Quell domestic unrest by gradual withdrawal of troops
- Expanded air war – to persuade the enemy to come to terms.
My Lai massacre
Lt William Calley ordered the murder of 347 civilians in het village of My Lai in ’68.
Nixon's Cambodian "incursion"
- Kent State – the Ohio nat’l guard called in to quiet rioting, but they panicked and it was chaos.
- Many Americans supported National Guard – they believed the students deserved it.
Publication of Pentagon Papers
confirmed that congress/public hadn’t received the full story on the Gulf of Tonkin incident, and that there wasn’t a plan to end viet.
the end of vietnam
- Shifts in American negotiating position – Thieu regime in s viet rejected the Kissinger plan for a cease-fire.
- "Christmas bombings" – Nixon ordered a massive bombing of Hanoi and Haiphong.
- Peace agreement signed – 1973 agreement on ending the war and restoring peace.
- South Vietnam's collapse – 1975 n took over the capital.
- The legacy of Vietnam – decreased respect for the military. Suggested that dem wasn’t transferable to the 3ed world.
Nixon's "southern strategy"
Nixon assured conservatives that he would slow fed enforcement of civil rights laws and appoint pro-s justices to the Supreme Court.
Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Edu
said school systems must bus students out of their neighborhoods if necessary to achieve racial integration.
Milliken v. Bradley
’74 said desegregation plans in Detroit requiring transfer of students from inner city to suburbs = unconstitutional.
Regants of U CA v. Bakke
’78 restricted the use of college-admin quotas to achieve racial balance.
Significance of legislation:
Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Edu
Milliken v. Bradley
Regants of U CA v. Bakke
Marked transition of desegregation from an issue of simple justice to complicated conflicting group of indiv rights.
Nixon's domestic program characterized
Social legislation of the Democratic Congress
– new fed’lism, new am rev to revive trad values, but was mostly a mess of reactionary and progressive initiative that never caught on.
– 26 ammend = 18yr olds can vote, ↑ soc sec and food stamp, Occupational safety and health act, clean air act bills to control water pollution, fed’l election campaign act to modify rules of campaign finance.
causes and effects of stagflation
- Holdover problems from Johnson's administration – he tried to pay for social welfare and viet war w/o a maj tax increase.
- Other – International competition among jap, germ, emerging world powers. Oil embargo. Increasing work force b/c of baby boomers and women. Wage and price controls.
effects -the econ was undergoing a recession and inflation at the same time.
- Increased understanding of limited nature of resources , but Few people willing to sacrifice
- Creation of Environmental Protection Agency to create a council n env quality in the white house that reported annually to congress and required envi-impact studies prior to fed construction project.
Nixon & the new multipolar world /Nixon doctrine
our interests must shape our commitments, not vise versa.
China and effects
- Official recognition – Henry Kissinger made a secret trip to Peking to explore the possibility of recognizing china.
- Effects – US and China agreed to scientific/cultural exchanges, and steps toward resumption of trade and reunification of Taiwan.
- Nixon's visit to Moscow – to discus w/ Leonid Brezhnev, the soviet premier.
- SALT agreement – Strategic Arms Limitation Talks, it didn’t end the arms race, but did limit the number of ICBMs each nation could have and prohibited construction of antiballistic missile systems.
- Moscow trade agreement –new trade agreements, US sold ¼ of its wheat to soviets at a good price.
- Problems in Middle East – Arab nations opposed Israel, in the 6day war, Israeli forces seized territory from Egypt, Syria, and Jordan.
- Kissinger's role in seeking peace – he flew to the capitals of the ME and laid the groundwork for the accord b/w Israel and Egypt in ’77.
- Wallace's shooting – caused him to withdraw from the campaign. He otherwise would’ve deprived the repubs of conservatives’ votes.
- Democrats nominate McGovern – but still a landslide victory for Nixon.
the initiall watergate
The original break-in and arrests at the Watergate – 5 burglars caught breaking into dem campaign committee headquarters in Watergate apt complex outside DC. 25 officials arrested, Nixon resigned.
Uncovering the cover-up
- Previous incidents of "dirty tricks" – falsely accusing Senators Humphrey and Jackson of sexual improprieties, forging press releases, setting off stink bombs at dem rallies, racist remarks towards the opposing candidates.
- Developments in the Senate committee hearings – several people admitted to the cover up.
- The Saturday Night Massacre – many people were fired/resigned, and called for the pres to be impeached.
- The Supreme Court's ruling on the tapes – US v. Nixon: pres must surrender all of tape recordings.
- Nixon's resignation – sc justified impeachment on grounds of the use of “hush” money, withholding of tapes = defiance of congress. He eventually gave up and resigned, the only pres to ever do so.
effects of watergate
- 25th amendment 1967– allowed for the appointment of a vp when the office became vacant.
- Cynicism over Ford's pardoning of Nixon – he never recovered the public’s confidence.
- War powers act – requires pres to inform congress w/in 48hrs if US troops are deployed in combat abroad, and to withdraw troops after 60 days unless congress specifically approves their stay.
- Deep pub disillusion – cynicism toward the “lying” gov that had violated their civil liberties.
1967– allowed for the appointment of a vp when the office became vacant.
Conservative domestic philosophy
- Role of the fed gov – he believed the fed gov exercised too much power over domestic affairs.
- The economy – resisted ↓ taxes and ↑fed spending, → huge recession.
- Arms talks – Ford met w/ soviet leader Brezhnev in Siberia an accepted framework for another arms-control accord to serve as basis for SALT II.
- Middle East – Israel promised to return most of Sinai territory to Egypt, and to rely upon negotiations rather than fore to settle future disagreements.
- The Mayaguez incident – Cambodian comms captured am ship Mayaguez, Ford sent marines to rescue the crew, 41 ams died for no reason.
The Mayaguez incident
Cambodian comms captured am ship Mayaguez, Ford sent marines to rescue the crew, 41 ams died for no reason.
The Carter style
he was faced w/ huge domestic and internat’l problems.
+diversity in his admin, fed task force, reformed civil services, depts of energy and edu.
- The energy bill – ’78, reflected power of special-interest lobbies.
- Fuel shortage – caused by renewed violence in the ME.
The Panama Canal Treaty
gave the canal zone back to Panama b/c it “was causing resentiment”
The Camp David accords
- Provisions – called for Israel to return all land in the Sinai in exchange for Egyptian recog of Israel’s sovereignty. Israeli settler vacated the peninsula.
- Effect – Arab nations condemned Sadat as a traitor.
- The economy – tax cut and increased pub spending to help unemp. + inflation
- SALT II – limited weapons/arms
- Soviet invasion of Afghanistan – carter disregarded SALT II to protest Soviet invasion of Afghan.
Background to the problem – shah fell in ’79, revolutionaries rallied around an anti-west Muslim leader.
Hostages taken – Khomeini endorsed the mob action and demanded the return of the shah and his wealth for release of the 51 hostages.
Carter unable to gain their release – embargo, ransom $, but Regan had been elected pres by that time.