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Describe how the various alcoholic beverages are made, and what their alcohol contents are, typically. What is "proof"?
- All Alcoholic Beverages depend on the process of fermentation. Fermentation begins with sugar is dissolved in water and exposed to air; which allows yeast to grow. The yeast then multiplies rapidly by eating the sugar; which is then converted to ethanol and carbon dioxide. Normally during fermentation alcohol percent is between 10-15%. To make hard alcohol distillation after the fermentation process is required. Distillation first involves heating a fermented beverage the vapor is then caught then is condensed through cooling.
- Proof: the proportion of alcohol in a beverage, by volume
Briefly describe patterns of alcohol consumption in the U.S. over the past 300 years or so.
- 1950-1980: consumption rose to a peak of 2.7 gallons a year
- 1980-1995: declined slowly to 2.1 gallons per year
- 1995-present: has increased slowly
What factors influence the rate of alcohol absorption from the small intestine?
Rate of consumption, Carbonated drinks, body fat
Explain how alcohol is metabolized, plus individual differences in alcohol effects due to metabolic differences.
Explain how alcohol alters neuronal communication (cellular mechanisms of action).
Alcohol alters cell membranes by entering their internal structure; results in reduced efficiency of conduction of neural impulses along axons which reduces action potential.
Describe the major psychophysiological effects of alcohol; what parts of the nervous system and body are altered by alcohol that result in these effects?
Alcohol effects many parts of the body, more specifically the brain. Also the sensory motor system is affected
What are "expectancy effects" and how do we know they play a role in people's experience of alcohol intoxication?
Expectancy effects are caused by psychological influence from others. Through studies and human nature we can see that peer influence can change the effects that one thinks that they are experiencing even if they are not truly physically experiencing them.
What are some drugs that have additive or synergistic effects when combined with alcohol? What is the greatest health risk of combining alcohol with these drugs?
Drugs that have synergistic effects with alcohol are opioids and cocaine. The greatest health risk is it can alter your perception on how much you are actually consuming of both drugs and how much you think that you can handle.
Why do people become tolerant to alcohol fairly rapidly?
People become tolerant to alcohol fairly rapidly because of enzyme induction—dehydrogenase production by liver=metabolic tolerance. Compensatory down—regulation of GABA (and other NT) systems=pharmacology tolerance. Learning to perform under the influence=behavioral tolerance.
Describe the alcohol withdrawal syndrome.
Withdrawal syndrome begins about 12 hours after termination of drinking and includes irritability, anxiety, high blood pressure and heart rate, cardiovascular release, sweating, tremors, seizures. These effects take place in the basil ganglia, substantia nigra, or cerebellum. Sometimes can even have hallucinations
What are the most serious long-term effects of heavy alcohol use?
Long term effects from heavy alcohol use include weight gain, cognitive dysfunction, liver damage, malnutrition, immune system depression, fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)
Describe 3 pharmacological treatments for alcohol-dependent individuals.
- 3 pharmacological treatments are:
- Disulforam- blocks aldehyde, if you drink, you build up acetaldenhyde
- Dehydrogenase naltrexone- opioid antagonist, decreases craving and reward, prolongs time to relapse
- Acamprostate- glutamate antagonist, prolongs time to relapse