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Describe the various types of THC-containing drugs.
- Marijuana: a hemp plant
- Hashish: Sticky resin
- Sinse-milla: buds and flowering tops of female plants
- Hash oil: Tar like liquid from hashish
Briefly describe the history of marijuana use (and marijuana-related legislation in the U.S.).
- Marijuana earliest known evidence is during the Stone Age; used in china during 2800 BC for medical uses.
- Cannabis appeared in the new world around 1545 it was brought to Chile by Spaniards.
- In North America it was raised for fiber by Virginia settlers.
- Cannabis was harvest as a major crop product until after the civil war. However not many knew about its mind altering substances.
- In 1920s, cannabis became a recreation drug and was banned in Louisiana.
- 1937 creation of the Marijuana Tax act occurred.
Describe the pharmacokinetics of smoked vs. eaten THC.
- The most rapid and efficient absorption of THC is through smoking.
- Inhalation results in absorption directly through the lungs and the onset is within minutes and peak is between 30-60 minutes
- Oral ingestion of THC levels is very slow and very inefficient. Takes about one hour is absorbed primarily through the GI Tract and is processed through the liver then goes to the brain.
Describe the role of expectation (learning) in marijuana's effects.
Explain the cellular mechanism of marijuana (THC)'s action.
Describe the major psychophysiological effects of marijuana; what parts of the nervous system and body are altered that may result in these effects?
- Physiological Acute: Blood shot eyes, increase heart rate and pulse rate, decrease in motor activity, dry mouth, and hunger
- Long term: very little data found on long term effects
- Psychological Acute: Behavioral: decreased in psychomotor activity, relaxation, more intense senses (hearing, seeing, touching, tasting, and smelling)
- Cognitive: Decrease short term memory and altered perception of time
- Emotional: positive behavior,
What are some of the negative effects of long-term marijuana use?
Describe the development of tolerance to and dependence on marijuana; why does marijuana dependence occur less frequently (and why are withdrawal symptoms milder) than with other drugs (e.g., cigarettes)?