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What does NAAQS stand for?
National Ambient Air Quality Standards
What is NAAQS?
Standards set by the EPA for the first 6 air pollutants (criteria of pollutants)
What are the 6 criteria air pollutants?
Which of the criteria air pollutants makes the color of smog?
NO2 or NOx
What is the color of NO2?
More NOx is created in which - hotter or colder temperatures?
What are the sources of NOx?
- Internal Combustion EnginesPower Plants (Electricity)
- Note: Any combustion process is a source of NOx
What are the effects of NOx on the Environment and Human Health?
- Respiratory Irritant
- Increases susceptibility to Upper Respirator Tract Infections
- Toxic to plants
- Reduces visibility
- Contributes to acid rain
Why is NOx a Respiratory Irritant and what does it irritate?
- NOx + H2O --> Nitric Acid
- Irritates lungs and bronchii
How does NOx affect plants?
Makes plants go through mottling (forming brown spots)
How does NOx contribute to acid rain?
Through the synthesis of Nitric Acid & Photochemical Smog
SOx is an impurity of what?
SOx comes from which? Gasoline or Diesel?
What are the sources of SOx?
- Oil Refineries
- Power Plants
- Heating Oil
What are the effects of SOx on Environmental and Human Health?
- Respiratory Irritant
- More toxic to plants than NOx
- Deteriorates cottony fibers
- #1 Contributor to Acid Rain
Why is SOx a respiratory irritant?
SOx + H2O --> H2SO4
H2SO4 or Sulfuric Acid is also known as?
What of the criteria air pollutants comes from incomplete burning of C?
True or false. Carbon Monoxide has a smell and is blue.
False. No smell and no color.
In what time of the year are CO levels the highest and why?
Summer; because Air Conditioning is always turned on
What are the sources of CO?
Any combustion process of fossil fuels
In what kind of area is CO most prominent?
Urban Areas (Cities)
What are the effects of CO on Environmental and Human Health?
- Headaches, Irritability
- SLow reactions, mental impairment
- Fatal at high doses
What is Carboxyhemoglobin?
CO binds to Hemoglobin, rendering Hemoglobin unable to deliver O2 through out the body thus organs become Oxygen-deficient
Where must Ozone be located before it can be considered an air pollutant?
In the Troposphere
Ozone pollution is a product of what?
How can you detect Ozone?
It can be smelled.
Where can you easily find Ozone?
- Electrical Shortages
- Copy Rooms
How is Photochemical Smog created?
NOx + H-Cs + light + O2 --> O3
Where do Hydrocarbons (H-Cs) come from?
What are the effects of Ozone on Environment and Human Health?
- Major Respiratory Irritant
- Eye Irritant
- Deteriorates cotton & other fibers
- Extremely toxic to plants
How does Ozone affect lung capacity if over exposed?
Lung capacity is decreased and is not recoverable
What are particulates?
Particles in the air (both solids and liquids)
What is the size range of particulates?
100 micrometers to 0.1 micrometers
What does PM_# (i.e. PM_10) mean?
A particulate matter at # micrometers
How small must the particulate matter be before we can't see it?
Anything less than PM_20
What are the natural sources of particulates?
What are the artificial sources of particulates?
- Cigarette Smoke
- Industrial Fog
- Fumes - metal aerosol
Give an example of metal aerosol.
Little piece of molten lead that dries and floats in the air.
What are the body's defenses against Particulates?
- Nose Hairs
- Nasal Turbinates aka Spiral Canals
- Mucociliary Escalator
What range of particulate size can the Nose Hairs protect the lungs from?
100 - 20 micrometers
What is the purpose of Nasal Turbinates and Spiral Canals?
To get the air in the canals spinning
What does spinning the air do?
- Warms the air
- Moistening of the air
- Centrifugal force
The Centrifugal Force of spinning air in Nasal Turbinates affects what range of Particulates?
PM20 to PM10
How does Centrifigual Force affect PM20 to PM10?
The force drives the particulates against the mucosal (sticky) walls of the Nasal Turbinates causing Impaction of Particles
How does the Mucociliary Escalator work?
The nasal passages contain millions of cells containing cells that sweep in a wave/rhythmic fashion pushing particles up.
How fast do the Mucociliary Escalator cilia move?
1000 times a second
What happens to the particles that are pushed up via the Mucociliary Escalator?
How does Air Pollution affect the Mucociliary Escalator?
They slow down the cilia, may even paralyze the cilia
What is the result of the paralysis of Mucociliary Escalator cilia?
Chronic Cough is very common with which group?
What is Pack Year History?
(# of packs smoked per day)*(years smoking)
What range of particulates are we most concerned about?
PM0.1 to PM2.5
Why are so concerned about PM0.1 to PM2.5?
Because they can enter the alveoli
What is our body's last line of defense against PM0.1 to PM2.5?
How are Macrophages summoned?
Via distress signals from the nodules created in the Alveoli
What do Macrophages do the particulates?
If the Macrophage cannot successfully phagocytize the particulate, what does it do?
It will leave the lung and commit suicide in the blood stream and the particle is then excreted through urine
What is intentional cell suicide called?
What is Particle Overload?
The more particles you breathe in, the slower the macrophages work
Why are smokers so much more susceptible to URIs (Upper Respiratory Infections)?
Because macrophages are so overloaded with particles that they don't work
True or false. Toxins from the cigarette can also kill macrophages.
What is the major source of Lead as a criteria air pollutant?
- Unleaded Gasoline (previously)
- Old paint
Where is leaded gasoline still used?