Psych Exam 2

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tenorsextets
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79028
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Psych Exam 2
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2011-04-12 00:33:05
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altered states consciousness sleep dreaming drugs
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  1. Neuron=
    brain cell
  2. Nerve bundles
    ganglions
  3. Neruogenesis
    production of new neurons, seldom happens in adults
  4. Stem cells
    immature cells that renew and can develop into mature cells (early embryos)
  5. 4 types of neurotransmitters
    • Serotonin
    • Dopamine
    • Acetylcholine
    • Norepinephrine
  6. Serotonin
    sleep, appetite, learning, memory, emotion, mood, sensory perception, and pain suppression.
  7. Dopamine
    • voluntary movement, learning, memory, emotion, and response to novelty and pleasure.
    • Too much= schizophrenia
    • Too little= parkinson's disease
  8. Acetylcholine
    muscle action, cognitive function, memory, and emotion. Dream State - REM
  9. Norepinephrine
    increased heart rate during stress, learning, memory, sleep and dreaming, awakening, emotion
  10. GABA
    inhibition of the function of the brain.
  11. Endorphins
    pain reduction, pleasure, and memory
  12. EEG
    measures surface electricity of the brain
  13. CAT
    sliced images of brain, good on hard tissue
  14. MRI
    good for brain tissue and soft tissue structures
  15. PET
    shows biochemical activity of brain
  16. Central Nervous system
    • Brain
    • Spinal cord: bridge between brain and peripheral nerves
  17. Peripheral Nervous system
    • Somatic: controls skeletal muscles
    • Autonomic: regulates internal body organs
  18. Sympathetic division
    Parasympathetic division
    • action and energy
    • conserves energy
  19. Endocrine system
    glands and hormones
  20. Melatonin
    pineal gland, regulation of biological rhythm (initiates sleep)
  21. Adrenal hormones
    emotion and stress
  22. Sex hormones
    reproductive development, gender characteristics
  23. Brain statistics
    • gray and white matter
    • 2-3 pounds
    • electrochemical mechanism
  24. Hind brain
    back area
  25. Pons
    sleeping and dreaming, communication
  26. Medulla
    staying alive
  27. Cerebellum
    movement and balance
  28. Reticular Activating system
    alert, sleep - awake cycle
  29. Forebrain
    under cerebrum
  30. Primitive brain
    • Thalamus: relay station
    • Hypothalamus/Pituitary gland: regulator
  31. Limbic system
    • 4 F's of psych: Food, Fight, Fear, Sex)
    • memory and emotion
  32. Amygdala
    Arousal, emotion, and memory; aggressive-defensive posture
  33. Hippocampus
    memory and emotion, short-term to long term info
  34. Cerebrum
    largest brain structure
  35. Cerebral cortex
    layers of brain cells
  36. Right hemisphere
    controls the left side balance, creative, musical, art, sapatial, and emotion
  37. Left hemisphere
    controls the right side balance, logical, reasoning, math, and language
  38. Frontal lobes
    mood, facial expressions, plan, anticipate, language, concepts, beliefs, memory and emotion, expressive
  39. Temporal lobes
    Wernicke's area, receptive language
  40. Partial lobe
    spacial, directions, face recognition, sensation (touch, pain)
  41. Occipital lobe
    visual understanding
  42. James
    stream of consciousness: always changing and flowing, of the moment
  43. Freud
    • -conscious: completely aware
    • -preconscious: in between conscious and unconscious (dreaming)
    • -unconscious: suppressed things come out in dreams
  44. Psychological dream theory (Freud)
    symbols of the unconscious, manifest content (what happens, storyline) and latent content (interpretation)
  45. Biological dream theory (McCarley and Hobson)
    Activation theory: dreams are random burst of neural impulses
  46. Psyc/Bio dream theory
    Lucid Dreaming: change dream in mid-stream
  47. Kleitman Studies
    • REM sleep is related to dreams
    • outside things affect dream
    • people know how long they dream
    • "morning wood" not related to dreams
  48. Insomnia
    inability to maintain or stay asleep
  49. Apnea
    stop breathing
  50. Narcolepsy
    suddenly sleeping (like Mr. Bean)
  51. Sleep Stages
    • REM- dream state
    • 1) Alpha
    • 2) K-complex (spikes in alpha waves
    • 3) Theta (long waves)
    • 4) Delta (night terrors, sleep walking/talking)
  52. Hypnosis
    distraction, expectation, and thus, altering one's consciousness
  53. Stage Hypnosis
    20% easy, 60% medium, 20% no
  54. Clinical use of hypnosis
    • pain reduction
    • anxiety reduction
    • child birth
    • conversion disorders (the mind makes it real)
    • stress related problems
  55. Meditation
    simple form of relaxation, focusing on focal point, progressive relaxation
  56. Biofeedback
    using machines to monitor how well you relax (like a mood ring)
  57. Guided Imagry
    image helps relaxation

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