Acid base

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  1. elecrolyte balance
    • every biochemical reaction in the body is influenced by the pH of its fluid enviromnent
    • acid base balance must be controlled
  2. acid
    any electrolyte that releases hydrogen ions when dissolved in water
  3. base
    any electrolyte that releases OH (hydroxide) ions when dissolved in water
  4. salt
    any substance that releases ions when dissolved in water (not H or OH)
  5. non-electrolytes
    • have covalent bonds that will not allow dissassociation when in solution
    • no charge (do not release H or OH)
    • usually organic molecules
  6. electrolytes
    dissassociates or ionizes in solution (has a charge)
  7. functions of electrolytes
    • carry electrical current
    • control osmosis
    • maintain acid/base balance
    • generate APs
    • muscle contraction
    • hormone secretion
    • neurotransmitter release
  8. extracellular fluid
    • fluid outside of the cell
    • high protein count
    • cation - Na+
    • anion - Cl-
  9. intracellular fluid
    • fluid inside the cell
    • small amts of Na+ and Cl-
    • cation - K+
    • anion - PO4-
  10. dehydration
    water loss exceeds intake
  11. edema
    excessive accumulation of fluid leading to tissue swelling
  12. hypotonic hydration
    • aka water intoxication
    • extreme intake of fluid causing coma and/or death
  13. Na+
    • 90% of ECF
    • conducts APs
    • contracts muscle
    • releases neurotransmitters
    • regulates water balance
    • excess Na+ into kidney
    • levels regulated by ADH and ALD
  14. hyponatremia
    • low sodium levels
    • confusion, coma, death
  15. hypernatremia
    • high sodium levels
    • thirst, fatigue, agitation
  16. K+
    • most abundant ion in ICF
    • maintain fluid volume
    • conducting APs
    • influences pH
    • abnormal levels cause cardiac issues
    • levels regulated by ALD - ALD secreted in response to high potassium - K+ moves into tubule
  17. Cl-
    • major ion in ECF
    • controlled by ALD (moves with Na+)
    • forms Hcl to control pH of gastric juices
  18. Ca++
    • most abundant ion in the body
    • muscle contraction
    • blood clotting
    • bone formation
    • neurotransmitter release
    • levels regulated by parathyroid and calcitonin
    • parathyroid - released when levels low - causes osteoclasts to breakdown bown and release calcium
    • calcitonin - released when levels high - causes osteoblasts to remove excess and deposit in bone
  19. phosphate
    • intracellular
    • nerve/muscle function
    • backbone of nucleic acids
  20. magnesium
    • intracellular (2nd)
    • activates enzymes responsible for CHO and protein metabolism
    • triggers Na+/K+ pump
  21. buffer systems
    • weak acids and weak bases
    • prevent rapid changes in pH
    • change strong acids to weak acids/strong bases to weak bases
    • carbonic acid and bicarb system
    • phosphate system
    • protein system
  22. carbonic acid/bicarb system
    • bicarb ions act as weak base
    • combine with strong acid with a weak acid
    • regulates blood pH
  23. phosphate buffer system
    maintains urine pH, filtrate pH, cytoplasm pH
  24. protein buffer system
    • most important/abundant in plasma and cells
    • proteins buffer acids and bases
    • amphoteric
  25. respiratory acidosis
    • increase in PC02
    • pH drops - excess H+ ions
    • caused by hypoventilation (emphysema or resp trauma) - decreased breathing
    • compensation: kidneys secrete H+ ions or reabsorb bicarb ions
  26. respiratory alkalosis
    • decrease in PC02
    • pH rises - excess HCO3- ions
    • caused by hyperventilation (oxygen deficiency, resp diseases, anxiety) - increased breathing
    • compensation: kidneys reabsorb H+ ions or secrete bicarb ions
  27. metabolic acidosis
    • decrease in bicarb
    • pH drops - excess HCO3- ions
    • caused by diarrhea or kidney dysfunction
    • compensation: hyperventilation to increase CO2 loss/increase pH
  28. metabolic alkalosis
    • increase in bicarb
    • pH rises - excess H+ ions
    • caused by excess vomiting, gastric suctioning, alkaline meds
    • compensation - hypoventilation to decrease CO2 loss/decrease pH
Card Set
Acid base
Acid Base
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