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2011-04-13 15:13:25
ASBOG Study Guide Chap Five

ASBOG Study Guide - Rocks and Minerals
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  1. Anion
    A negatively charged ion
  2. Aureole
    The zone of metatmorphosed rock surrounding an igneous intrusion and showing the effectgs of contact metamorphism
  3. Bar
    A unit of pressure equal to 106 dynes/cm2, approx 1 atmosphere
  4. Bowen's Reaction Series
    The sequence of minerals that form in the process of fractional crystallization of a magma
  5. Bruial Metamorphism
    a type of low-grade regional metamorphism affectin sediments and interlayered volcanic rock that has lower temps (200C to 450C) without any influence of orogenesis or magmatic intrusion
  6. Cation
    A positively charged ion
  7. Color Index
    A number that represents the percent by weight or volume of dark-colored minerals in a rock
  8. Contact Metamorphism
    Metamorphism associated with the intrusion of an igneous mass. Relatively low pressure (<3000 bars) temps range from 200C to 1000C
  9. Diagenesis
    The physical and chemical changes undergone by sediments when compacted and lithified
  10. Eugeosyncline
    The oceanic part of a geosyncline characteriazed by volcanism associated with clastic sedimentatoin
  11. Extrusive Rocks
    Igneous rocks that ahve been erupted on the surface of the earth
  12. Facies
    A mappable, areally restrcited part of a rock body that has different fossils or lithology from other contiguous beds deposited at the same time
  13. Geosyncline
    A major downwarp in the Earth's crust in which sediments accumulate
  14. Intrusive Rocks
    Igneous rocks that have been formed within the Earth by emplacement of magma into pre-existing rock
  15. Metamorphic Facies
    A set of metamorphic mineral assemblages that have reached chemical equilibrium during metamorphism within a restricted range of temperature and pressure conditions
  16. Metamorphic Grade
    The intensity or rank of metamorphism, measured by the amount or degree of difference between the original rock and metamorphic rock
  17. Metasomatism
    The process of mineral replacement whereby a new mineral of a different chemical composition grows in an old mineral. Interstitial liquids or gases must be present for solution and deposition to occur
  18. Mineral
    A naturally occurring, inorganic substance, usually having an internal crystal structure
  19. Mineral Assemblages
    The minerals that compose a rock, including the differnt kinds and their relative abundance
  20. Plutonic Rocks
    Igneous rocks formed from a large intrusion at depth
  21. Provenance
    The place of origin from which the constituent materals of a sedimentary rock or facies
  22. Regional Metamorphism
    Metamorphism acting over a large areas resulting from applied pressures of 3000 to 10000 bars and temperatures of 400C to 800C.
  23. Regression
    The withdrawal of the sea from land
  24. Rock Stratigraphic Unit
    A rock unit that is characterized by a particular homogeneous lithology or combination of lithologies without regard to time boundaries
  25. Silicates
    Compounds whose crystal structure contain SiO4 tetrahedra, either isolated or joined to form groups, rings, chains, sheets or three-dimensional frameworks
  26. Solid Solution Series
    A series of minerals of identical structures that contain a mixture of 2 elements over a range of proportions
  27. Time Stratigraphic Unit
    A rock unti that is characterized by formation during a specific period of time without regard to lithology
  28. Transgression
    The advance of the sea onto land
  29. Volcanic Rocks
    Igneous rocks that are generally finely crystalline or glassy, resutling from volcanic action at or near the earth's surface, either ejected explosively or extruded as lava
  30. Zeolites
    A large group of hydoraluminosilicate minerals that are analogous in composition to the feldspars