Card Set Information
Self-Care Exam 2
What is a “heavy smoker” for nicotine transdermal patches?
More than 10 cigarrettes per day
What is a “light smoker” for nicotine transdermal patches?
10 or less cigarettes per day
What is the dosing of nicotine transdermal patches for a “heavy smoker”?
21mg patch for 6 weeks
14mg patch for 2 weeks
7mg patch for 2 weeks
What is the dosing of nicotine transdermal patches for a “light smoker”?
14mg patch for 6 weeks
7mg patch for 2 weeks
What are some common side effects of nicotine transdermal patches?
Redness, itching, burning at site of patch
Muscle joint aches/pains
Who should use the 4mg nicotine gum?
Patients that smoke 25 or more cigarettes/day
Who should use the 2mg nicotine gum?
Patients that smoke less than 25 cigarettes/day
What is the dosing of nicotine gum?
1 piece every 2 hours for first 6 weeks
1 piece every 2-4 hours for 3 weeks
1 piece every 4-8 hours for 3 weeks
What are some common side effects of nicotine gum?
Who should use the 2mg nicotine lozenge?
People whose first cigarette is more than 30 minutes after waking
Who should use the 4mg nicotine lozenge?
People whose first cigarette is within 30 minutes of waking
What is the dosing of nicotine lozenges?
1 lozenge every 1-2 hours for 6 weeks
1 lozenge every 2-4 hours for 3 weeks
1 lozenge every 4-8 hours for 3 weeks
What is DRI?
Dietary reference intake
What is RDA?
Recommended dietary allowance
What is EAR?
Estimated average requirement
How is RDA calculated?
EAR + 2 standard deviations
What vitamins are water soluble?
Ascorbic acid (vitamin C)
What vitamins are fat soluble?
D, E, A, K
What happens to excessive amounts of water soluble vitamins?
Excreted in urine
What happens to excessive amounts of fat soluble vitamins?
Stored in body tissue; toxicity is more likely than with water soluble
What forms of Vitamin D are there?
What is the purpose of vitamin D?
Bone and mineral homeostasis; role in maintaining phosphate and calcium levels
What conditions are present in people with a Vitamin D deficiency?
Rickets, osteoporosis, increased fracture risk
What is another name for Vitamin E?
What is the purpose of Vitamin E?
Antioxidant; protects the integrity of biological membranes
What conditions are present in people with a Vitamin E deficiency?
Increased platelet aggregation, hemolytic anemia, decreased RBC survival
What can high doses of Vitamin E lead to?
Increased bleeding risk due to antagonism of Vitamin K-dependent clotting factors
What forms of Vitamin A are there?
Retinol; retinaldehyde; retinoic acid
What conditions are present in people with a Vitamin A deficiency?
Night blindness, Bitot’s spots, conjunctival xerosis
What are Bitot’s spots?
Superficial, irregularly-shaped patches that appear in the conjunctiva
What is the purpose of Vitamin K?
Promotes synthesis of clotting factors in the liver
What conditions might be present in someone with a Vitamin K deficiency?
Unusual bleeding and abnormal prothrombin time
What is the purpose of Vitamin C?
Antioxidant; aids collagen production; assists in iron absorption from food
What condition might be present in someone with a Vitamin C deficiency?
What are some signs of scurvy?
Bleeding gums, slow wound healing, loose teeth and mouth ulcerations
What is another name for B1?
What is another name for B2?
What is another name for B3?
What is another name for B5?
What is another name for B6?
What is another name for B7?
What is another name for B9?
What is another name for B12?
What is the purpose of thiamin?
Acetyl CoA formation; necessary for myocardial functions
What population commonly has a deficiency in thiamin?
What is the purpose of riboflavin?
Involved in the cytochrome P-450 reductase enzyme system in the liver
What is the purpose of niacin?
Accept or donate hydrogen ions to aerobic reactions in all body cells
What condition is seen in people with a niacin deficiency?
What symptoms are commonly seen with pellagra?
Why might a person take niacin?
To lower triglycerides an LDL cholesterol
What is the purpose of pantothenic acid?
Precursor of CoA; important for cholesterol, steroid, and fatty acid synthesis
What is the purpose of pyridoxine?
Cofactor for more than 6- enzymes; important in production of heme and metabolism of homocysteine
What population(s) commonly have a pyridoxine deficiency?
Alcoholics, malabsorption conditions
What is the purpose of biotin?
Carbohydrate and fat metabolism
What is the purpose of folic acid?
DNA synthesis, RBC maturation
What population(s) commonly have a folic acid deficiency?
Alcoholics and malabsorption diseases
What condition can result in pregnant women with a folic acid deficiency?
Neural tube defects (spinal bifida, etc)
What is the purpose of B12?
Fat, protein, CHO metabolism
What four populations are at most risk for iron deficiency? Why?
Childhood (iron in cow’s milk poorly absorbed)
During/after pregnancy (expanding blood volume, blood loss after birth)
Geriatrics (inadequate diet, poor absorption, increased GI blood losses)
What are common side effects of iron products?
Black, tarry stools