Self-Care.txt

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Author:
kgruenin
ID:
79110
Filename:
Self-Care.txt
Updated:
2011-04-12 13:44:21
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Self Care
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Description:
Self-Care Exam 2
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  1. What is a “heavy smoker” for nicotine transdermal patches?
    More than 10 cigarrettes per day
  2. What is a “light smoker” for nicotine transdermal patches?
    10 or less cigarettes per day
  3. What is the dosing of nicotine transdermal patches for a “heavy smoker”?
    • 21mg patch for 6 weeks
    • 14mg patch for 2 weeks
    • 7mg patch for 2 weeks
  4. What is the dosing of nicotine transdermal patches for a “light smoker”?
    • 14mg patch for 6 weeks
    • 7mg patch for 2 weeks
  5. What are some common side effects of nicotine transdermal patches?
    • Redness, itching, burning at site of patch
    • Abnormal dreams
    • Headaches
    • GI symptoms
    • Muscle joint aches/pains
  6. Who should use the 4mg nicotine gum?
    Patients that smoke 25 or more cigarettes/day
  7. Who should use the 2mg nicotine gum?
    Patients that smoke less than 25 cigarettes/day
  8. What is the dosing of nicotine gum?
    • 1 piece every 2 hours for first 6 weeks
    • 1 piece every 2-4 hours for 3 weeks
    • 1 piece every 4-8 hours for 3 weeks
  9. What are some common side effects of nicotine gum?
    • Mouth irritation
    • Hiccups
    • Dizziness
    • Insomnia
    • Headache
    • Irritability
  10. Who should use the 2mg nicotine lozenge?
    People whose first cigarette is more than 30 minutes after waking
  11. Who should use the 4mg nicotine lozenge?
    People whose first cigarette is within 30 minutes of waking
  12. What is the dosing of nicotine lozenges?
    • 1 lozenge every 1-2 hours for 6 weeks
    • 1 lozenge every 2-4 hours for 3 weeks
    • 1 lozenge every 4-8 hours for 3 weeks
  13. What is DRI?
    Dietary reference intake
  14. What is RDA?
    Recommended dietary allowance
  15. What is EAR?
    Estimated average requirement
  16. How is RDA calculated?
    EAR + 2 standard deviations
  17. What vitamins are water soluble?
    • B-complex
    • Ascorbic acid (vitamin C)
  18. What vitamins are fat soluble?
    D, E, A, K
  19. What happens to excessive amounts of water soluble vitamins?
    Excreted in urine
  20. What happens to excessive amounts of fat soluble vitamins?
    Stored in body tissue; toxicity is more likely than with water soluble
  21. What forms of Vitamin D are there?
    • D2=ergocalciferol
    • D3= cholecalciferol
  22. What is the purpose of vitamin D?
    Bone and mineral homeostasis; role in maintaining phosphate and calcium levels
  23. What conditions are present in people with a Vitamin D deficiency?
    Rickets, osteoporosis, increased fracture risk
  24. What is another name for Vitamin E?
    Tocopherol
  25. What is the purpose of Vitamin E?
    Antioxidant; protects the integrity of biological membranes
  26. What conditions are present in people with a Vitamin E deficiency?
    Increased platelet aggregation, hemolytic anemia, decreased RBC survival
  27. What can high doses of Vitamin E lead to?
    Increased bleeding risk due to antagonism of Vitamin K-dependent clotting factors
  28. What forms of Vitamin A are there?
    Retinol; retinaldehyde; retinoic acid
  29. What conditions are present in people with a Vitamin A deficiency?
    Night blindness, Bitot’s spots, conjunctival xerosis
  30. What are Bitot’s spots?
    Superficial, irregularly-shaped patches that appear in the conjunctiva
  31. What is the purpose of Vitamin K?
    Promotes synthesis of clotting factors in the liver
  32. What conditions might be present in someone with a Vitamin K deficiency?
    Unusual bleeding and abnormal prothrombin time
  33. What is the purpose of Vitamin C?
    Antioxidant; aids collagen production; assists in iron absorption from food
  34. What condition might be present in someone with a Vitamin C deficiency?
    Scurvy
  35. What are some signs of scurvy?
    Bleeding gums, slow wound healing, loose teeth and mouth ulcerations
  36. What is another name for B1?
    Thiamin
  37. What is another name for B2?
    Riboflavin
  38. What is another name for B3?
    Niacin
  39. What is another name for B5?
    Pantothenic acid
  40. What is another name for B6?
    Pyridoxine
  41. What is another name for B7?
    Biotin
  42. What is another name for B9?
    Folic acid
  43. What is another name for B12?
    Cyanocobalamin
  44. What is the purpose of thiamin?
    Acetyl CoA formation; necessary for myocardial functions
  45. What population commonly has a deficiency in thiamin?
    Alcoholics
  46. What is the purpose of riboflavin?
    Involved in the cytochrome P-450 reductase enzyme system in the liver
  47. What is the purpose of niacin?
    Accept or donate hydrogen ions to aerobic reactions in all body cells
  48. What condition is seen in people with a niacin deficiency?
    Pellagra
  49. What symptoms are commonly seen with pellagra?
    • Dermatitis
    • Dementia
    • Diarrhea
  50. Why might a person take niacin?
    To lower triglycerides an LDL cholesterol
  51. What is the purpose of pantothenic acid?
    Precursor of CoA; important for cholesterol, steroid, and fatty acid synthesis
  52. What is the purpose of pyridoxine?
    Cofactor for more than 6- enzymes; important in production of heme and metabolism of homocysteine
  53. What population(s) commonly have a pyridoxine deficiency?
    Alcoholics, malabsorption conditions
  54. What is the purpose of biotin?
    Carbohydrate and fat metabolism
  55. What is the purpose of folic acid?
    DNA synthesis, RBC maturation
  56. What population(s) commonly have a folic acid deficiency?
    Alcoholics and malabsorption diseases
  57. What condition can result in pregnant women with a folic acid deficiency?
    Neural tube defects (spinal bifida, etc)
  58. What is the purpose of B12?
    Fat, protein, CHO metabolism
  59. What four populations are at most risk for iron deficiency? Why?
    • Childhood (iron in cow’s milk poorly absorbed)
    • Adolescence (menses)
    • During/after pregnancy (expanding blood volume, blood loss after birth)
    • Geriatrics (inadequate diet, poor absorption, increased GI blood losses)
  60. What are common side effects of iron products?
    • Constipation
    • GI upset
    • Black, tarry stools

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