unit 2- neuro

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ski4me18
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79124
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unit 2- neuro
Updated:
2011-04-12 14:48:23
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neuro system
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neuro...
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  1. what are some age-related changes associated w/ the neurological system?
    • decline in mental fx may result from the decrease in mental stim. and increase in loneliness that occurs w/ loss of employment, relatives, friends
    • brain vol. and brain cells decrease w/ aging
    • motor response slow
    • vibration, position, sense and some reflexes may be diminished or absent
    • processing and leanin of new material occurs slowly
    • delirium is more common characteristic of infection than elevated temp
    • depressin becomes more prevalent
  2. what are the levels of conciousness?
    • alert
    • lethargy
    • obtundation
    • stupos
    • coma
  3. defn lethargy
    client is able to open eyes and respond, but is drowsy and falls asleep readily
  4. defn obtundation
    client needs to be lightly shaken to respond, but may be confused and slow to respond
  5. defn stupor
    client requires painful stimuli to achieve a brief response
  6. what are the 2 abnormal positions associated w/ coma pt's.
    • decoricate rigidity- flexion and internal rotation of upper extremity joints and legs
    • decerebrate rigidity- neck and elbow extension, writst and fingers flexed
  7. what is the Glasgow Coma Scale?
    measures the levels of conciousness
  8. how do you assess cognitive processes?
    • memory- recent (repeat series of numbers) and remote (state birth dates)
    • knowledge- what do they know about current illness/hospitalization
    • abstract thinking- interpert a cliche'
    • association- how do various concepts are related
    • judgement- ask client about solution
  9. what are the parts of the mini-mental exam?
    • orientation to time and place
    • attention and calculations (count backward by 7's)
    • registration and recalling of obj
    • language (name obj, follow commands, write)
  10. CN 1... name it give me the function and system.
    • olfactory
    • sensory-smell
    • ears, nose, mouth and throat
  11. CN II.. name it, give me the function and system
    • optic
    • sensory- visual acuity, visual fields
    • eyes
  12. CN III, IV, VI... name it, give me the function and system
    • Oculomotor , trochlear, abducens
    • sensory- PERRLA, six cardnial positions of gaze
    • eyes
  13. CN VI... name it give me the function and the system
    • facial
    • sensory- tast (salt/sweet) on anterior 2/3's of tongue
    • motor- facial movements
    • head and neck
  14. VII... name it give me the function and the system
    • auditory
    • sensory- hearing and balance
    • ears, nose, mouth and throat
  15. IX... name it give me the function and the system
    • flossopharyngeal
    • sensory- tast (sour/bitter) on posterior 1/3 of tongue
    • motor- swallowing, speech sounds and gag reflex
    • ears, nose, mouth, throat, neurological
  16. X... name it give me the function and the system
    • vagus
    • motor- swallowing, speech sounds and gag reflex
    • ears, nose, mouth, and throat
  17. XI... name it give methe function and hte system
    • motor- turn head, shrug shoulders
    • head and neck
  18. XII... name it give me the function and the system
    • hypoglossal
    • motor- tongue movements
    • ears, nose, mouth and throat
  19. how do you assess motor function?
    • assess coordination- finger to nose rapidly
    • gait
    • balance
  20. what test are used to assess balance?
    romberg and heel-to-toe-walk
  21. how do you est sensory function?
    • pain
    • temperature
    • light touch
    • vibration
  22. what are the 3 ways to assess discrimination and how does it work?
    • two point discrimination- use paper clips to determine the distance at which the 2 points are felt at once
    • stereognosis- familiar object placed in clients hand w/ eyes closed
    • graphesthesia- identify what is being drawn on their palms
  23. what is the graing of deep tendon reflex (DTR)
    • 4+: very brisk w/ clonus
    • 3+: more brisk than average
    • 2+: expected
    • 1+: diminished
    • 0: no response
  24. when the tricep tendon is hit w/ a reflex hammer, the expected response is for the elbow to?
    extend
  25. when the patellar tendon is hit with a reflex hammer, the expected response is?
    extension
  26. when the achilles tendon is hit with a reflex hammer, the expected response is?
    platar flexion of the foot
  27. when the bicep tendon is hit with a reflex hammer what is the expected response?
    flexion

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