mgmt 3

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mgmt 3
2011-05-01 08:48:15

test 3
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  1. Attitudes: ABC Model
    An Evaluation either positive or negative that predisposes a person to act in a certain way

    • Affect - feelings for an object
    • Behavorial Intentions - potential behavior towards an object
    • Cognition - beliefs about an object
  2. Attitude Change Techniques
    • Persuasion - cognition -> behavoir : if you change tyour beliefs then your behavior will change
    • Conditioning - affect -> Cognition -> behavior : change feelings, then change beliefs, then change behavior
    • Cognitive Dissonance Production - behavior -> cognition : change beliefs inorder to justify behavior
  3. Perception
    the cognitive process people use to make sense out of the environment by selecting, organizing, and interpretting information from the environment

    "the link between the person and the environment"

    includes social perception - impressions of people
  4. Selectivity
    percieving onlu part of environment or attending to some parts more than others

    • external factors - similaroty, size, nearness, motion
    • internal factors - experience, motivation
  5. Closure
    Adding to your perception

    • stereotyping
    • halo effects
    • attribution - judging the causes of someones behavior

    preceive a whole when only parts are there
  6. Fundemental Attribution Error
    We percieve others behaviors as more internally caused than they are
  7. Self-serving bias
    we perceive our own

    • success as internal
    • failure as external
  8. Personality
    Is the set of characteristics that underlie a relatively stable pattern of behavior in response to ideas, objects, or people in the environment

    • Internal state - can't observe personality
    • Uniqueness - all different than everyone else
    • consistency
    • stability - consistency across time

    Managers who appriciate the ways their employees personalities differ have insight into what kinds of leadership behavior will be most influential
  9. Emotional Intelligence
    • 1. knowing one's own emotions
    • 2. controlling one's emotions
    • 3. recognizing other's emotions - empathy
    • 4. Social Skill - controlling others emotions

    Incompetence in management occurs more often from lack of EQ than lack of IQ

    Essential in managing conflict
  10. Locus of Control
    People who believe that individuals are in control of their own lives have an internal locus of control

    people that think that forces beyond their control dictate what happens to them have an external locus of control
  11. Type A Behavoirs
    • Highly competitive
    • impatient
    • high job involvement
    • aggressiveness

    • more stress related illnesses
    • high energy
    • seek positions of power and responsibility

    • determinants
    • - sensitive nervous system
    • - demanding parents (love contingent oupon achievement)
  12. Level 5 Leadership
    • a leader with a combination of personal humanity and resolve
    • more ambitious for their companies than for themselves
  13. interactive leadership
    a leader who is concernes with consensus building, is open and inclusive, and encourages participation

    seems to be more prevalent among females
  14. Leadership Grid
    • Concern for prodction measured from 1 to 9
    • concern for people measured on a scale of 1 to 9
    • team management (9,9) is often considered the most effective style for all managers
  15. Transactional Leader
    this is the traditional view of leadership that the new approaches are contrasted with

    A leader who clarifies suborniates' role and task requirements, initiates structure, provides rewards, and displays consideration for subordinates
  16. Charasmatic Leader
    a leader whose personality motivates subordinates to transcend their expected performance
  17. Visionary leader
    a leader who is able to imagine how the future could be and inspire others to work toward creating that future
  18. Transformational Leader
    A leader distinguished by a special ability to bring about innovation and change
  19. Servant Leader
    A leader who works to fulfill sobordinates' needs and goals - as a means to acheive the organizations larger mission
  20. Subsitutes
    accomplish by other means what leaders do
  21. neutralizers
    prevent leader from leading - lack of power to control rewards, physical seperation
  22. Organizational behavior
    an interdisciplinary field dedicated to the study of human attitudes, behavior and performance in organizations
  23. Organizational Citizenship
    refers to the tendency of people to help one another and put in extra effort that goes beyond job requirements to contibute to the organizations success

    being helpful to coworkers and customers, doing extra work when necessary, looking for ways to improve products and procedures
  24. Cognitive component
    include the beliefs, opinions and information the person has about the object of the attitude
  25. Affective component
    the persons emotions about the object of the attitude
  26. behavioral component
    the persons inention to behave toward the object of the attitude in a certian way
  27. Perceptual selectivity
    is the process by which individuals subconsiously screen and select the various objects and stimuli that vie for their attention
  28. Stereotyping
    the tendency to assign an individual to a group or broad category and then to attribute widely held generalizations about the group to the individual
  29. halo effect
    occurs when te perceiver develops an overall impression of a person or situation based on one characteristic either favorable or unfavorable
  30. projection
    the tendency of perceivers to see their own personal traits in other people, project their own needs, feelings, values and attitudes into their own judgemwnt of others
  31. perceptual difference
    the tendency of perceivers to protect themselves against objects, ideas or people that are threatening
  32. attributions
    judegements about what caused a persons behavior

    • internal - says characteristic of person lead to behavior
    • external - says something about the situation caused te persons behavior
  33. Distinctiveness
    whether the behavior is unusual for that person
  34. consistency
    whether the person being observed has a history of behaving in the same way
  35. consensus
    whether other people tend to respond to similar situations in the same way
  36. Authoritarianism
    the belief that power and status differences should exist in the organization
  37. Machiavellianism
    is characterized u the aquisition of power and the manipulation of other people for purely personal gain
  38. Type B
    Less of Type A

    experience less conflict with other people and a more balanced relaxed lifestyle
  39. Stress
    and individuals physiological and emotional response to external stimuli that place physical or physhological demands on the individual and create uncertianty and lack of personal control when important outsomes are at stake

    - peoples resopnses to stress vary according to their personalities
  40. Leadership
    the ability to influence people toward the attainment of goals
  41. Humility
    being unpretentious and modest rather than arrogant and prideful
  42. Differences between a manager and leader
    manager - promotes stability, order, and problem solving within the existing organizational structure

    leader - promotes vision, creativity, and change. questioning the status quo so that outdated, unproductive or socially irreponsible norms can be replaced to meet new challenges - move organization into the future
  43. consideration
    people oriented behavior, the extent to which leadership is mindful of subordinates, respects their ideas and feelings, and establishes mutual trust
  44. initiating structure
    degree of task behavior, the extent to which the leader is task oriented and directs suborniate work activities toward goal attainment
  45. situational theory
    an interesting extension of the behavioral theories summarized in the leadership grid

    - suborniates vary in readiness level
  46. Fiedlers Contingency Theory
    highly favorable/ unfavorable situation - task oriented is best

    moderate favorability - relationship oriented is best
  47. Power
    potential ability to influence the behavior of others
  48. influence
    the effect a persons actions have on the attutudes values and beliefs or behavior of others
  49. sensation - thinking
    • emphasizes details facts certianty
    • is a desisive applied thinker
    • focuses on short term realistic goals
    • develops rules and regulations for judging performance
  50. intuitive - thinking
    • prefers dealing with theoretical or technical problems
    • is creative, progressive, perceptive thinker
    • focuses on possibilities using impersonal analysis
    • is able to consider a number of options and problems simulaneously
  51. sensation - feeling
    • shows concern for current, rel-life himan problems
    • is pragmatic, analytical, methodical and conscientious
    • emphasizes detailsed facts about people rather tan tasks
    • focuses on structuring organizations for the benefit of people
  52. intuitive - feeling
    • avoid specifics
    • is charismatic, participative, people oriented and helpful
    • focuses on general veiws, broad themes and feelings
    • decentralizes decision making, develops few rules and regulations
  53. alienated follower
    a person who is an independent, critical thinker but is passive in the organization
  54. conformist
    a follower who participates actively in the organization but does not use critical thinking skills
  55. passive follower
    a person who exhibits neither critical independent thinking nor active participation
  56. effective follower
    a critical, independent thinker who actively participates in the organization
  57. Legitimate power
    power that stems from a formal management position in an organization and the authority granted to it
  58. reward power
    power that results from the suthority to bestow rewards on other people
  59. expert power
    power that stems fromspecial knowledge of or skill in the tasks performed by subordinates
  60. referent power
    power that results fomr characteristics that command subordinates' identification with respect and admiration for and desire to emulate the leader
  61. Moral Leadership
    distinguish right from wrong and choosing to do right in the practice of leadership
  62. Motivation
    refers to the forces either within or external to a person that arouse enthusiasm and persistence to persue a certain course of action
  63. Intrinsic rewards
    are the satisfactions a person receive in the process of performing a particular action
  64. Extrinsic Rewards
    are given by another person typically a manager, and include promotions, pay increases and bonuses
  65. Content theories
    a group of theories that emphasize the needs that motivate people
  66. Hierrchy of needs theory
    A content theory that proposes that people are motivated by 5 categories of needs that exist in a hierarchal order

    low order needs take priority over high level needs

    • Physiological needs
    • safety needs
    • esteem needs
    • belongingness needs
    • self-actualization needs
  67. Physiological needs
    these most basic human physical needs include food water and oxygen
  68. Safety needs
    these needs include a safe and secure physical and emotional environment
  69. Esteem needs
    reflect the desire for a positive self image and to receive attention, recognition, abd appreciation from others
  70. Belongingness needs
    relate to the desire to be accepted by ones peers, have friendships, be a part of a group, and be loved
  71. self-actualization needs
    these needs include the need for self fulfillment, which is the highest need category

    concern for developing ones full potential , increasing ones competence and becoming a better person
  72. ERG Theory
    identifies only three categories of needs

    • Existence needs - the needs for physical well being
    • Relatedness needs - the need for satisfactory relationships with others
    • Growth needs - the needs that focus on the development of human potential and the desire for personal growth and increased competence

    movement up the hieracrchy is more complex
  73. Frustrtion- Regression principle
    the idea that failure to need a high rder need may cause a regression to an already satisfies lower need

    used in ERG theory
  74. Two factor theory
    work characteristics associated with dissatisfaction were quite different from those pertaining to satisfaction

    • Hygiene factors
    • motivators
  75. Hygiene factors
    involve the presence or absence of job satisfiers include working conditions, pay, company policies, and interpersonal relationships
  76. Motivators
    factors that influence job satisifaction based on fulfillment of highest level needs such as acheivement, recognition, resopnsibility and opportunity for growth
  77. Aquired needs theory
    proposes that certain types of needs are aquired during the individuals lifetime

    • 1. need for acheivement - the desire to accomplish something difficult, attain a high standard of success, master complex tasks and surpass others
    • 2. need for affiliation - the desire to gorm close personal relationships, avoid conflict and establish warm friendships
    • 3. needs for power - the desire to influence or control others, be responsible for others, and have authority over others
  78. Process Theories
    a group of therories that explain how employees select behaviors with which to meet their needs and determine whether their choices were successful.
  79. Goal-Setting Theory
    a motivtion theory in which specific challenging goals increase motivation and performance, when the goals are accepted by subordinates and these subordinates receive feedback to indicate their progress toward goal acheivement
  80. Equity
    A situation that exists when the ratio of one person's outcomes to inputs equals that of others
  81. Equity Theory
    A Process theory that focuses on individuals' perceptions of how fairly they are treated relative to others
  82. Reduce feeling of equity
    • change work effort - a person may choose to increase or decrease his/her inputs to the organization
    • change outcomes
    • change perceptions - research suggests that people are able to change perceptions of equity if they are unable to change inputs or outcomes
    • leave the job - people who feel inequitably treated may decide to leave their jobs rather than suffer the inequity of being under/over paid
  83. Expectancy Theory
    a process theory that proposes that motivation depend on individuals expectations about their ability to perform tasks and receive desired awards
  84. E -> P expectancy
    expectandy that putting effor into a given task will lead to high performance
  85. P -> O expectancy
    expectancy that successful performanceof a task will lead to a desired outcome.
  86. Valence
    the value or attraction an individual has for an outcome
  87. reinforcement theory
    a motivation theory based on the relationship between a given behavior and its consequences
  88. behavior modification
    the set of techniques by which reinforcement theory is used to modify human behavior
  89. positive reinforcement
    the administration of pleasant and rewarding consequence following a desired behavior
  90. Avoidance learning
    negative reinforcement

    the removal of unpleasent consequence when an undesireable behavior is corrected
  91. Extinction
    the withdrawl of a positive reward
  92. Punishment
    the imposition of an unpleasant outcome following undesireable behavior
  93. Job rotation
    a job design that systematically moves employees from one job to another to provide them with variety and stimulation
  94. job enlargement
    a job tdesign that comines a series of tasks into one new broader job to give employees variety and challenge
  95. job enrichment
    a job design that incorporated acheivement, recognition, and other high-level motivators into the work
  96. Core Job Dimensions
    Determine a jobs motivation potential

    • Skill variety
    • task identity
    • task signifiance
    • Autonomy
    • Feedback
  97. Skill variety
    - the number of deiverse activities that compose a job and the number of skills used to perform it
  98. Task Identity
    - the degree to which an employee performs a total job with a recognizable begining and ending
  99. Task Significance
    the degree to which the job is perceived as important and having an impact on the company or customers
  100. Autonomy
    The degree to which the worker has freedom, discretion, and self determination in planning and carrying out tasks
  101. feedback
    the extent to which doing the job provides information back to the employee about his/her performance
  102. Empowerment
    is power sharing, the delegation of power or authority to subordinates in an organization
  103. team
    a unit of two or more people who interact and coordinate their work to accomplish a specific goal
  104. vertical team
    a formal team composed of a manager and his/her subordinates in the organzation's formal chain of command
  105. horizontal team
    a formal team composed of employees from about the same hieracrchal level but from different areas of expertise
  106. Committee
    a long lasting, sometimes permanent team in the organization structure created to deal with tasks the recur regularly
  107. special purpose team
    a team created outside the formal organization to undertake a project of special importance or creativity
  108. Problem solving team
    typically 5 to 12 employees from the same department who meet to discuss ways of improving quality efficeincy and the work environment
  109. self- directed team
    a team consisting of 5 to 20 multiskilled workers who rotate jobs to produce and entire product or service, often supervised by an elected member
  110. virtual team
    a team made up of members who are geographically or organizationally disbursed , rarely meet face to face , and do their work using advanced information technologies
  111. socioemotional role
    a role in which the individual provides support for team members, emotional needs and social unity
  112. task specialist role
    a role in which the individual devotes personal time and energy to helping the team accomplish its goal
  113. Team Cohesiveness
    the extent to which team members are attracted to the team and motivated to remain in it, conditions the determine cohesiveness are

    • team interaction
    • shared goals
    • personal attraction to team
  114. Presence of Competition
    when a team is in moderate competition with other teams its cohesiveness increases as it strives to win
  115. Team success
    the favorable evaluation of the team by outsiders adds to the cohesiveness
  116. team norm
    a standard of conduct that is shared by team members and guides their behavior

    provide a frame of reference for what is acceptable and unacceptable
  117. conflict
    antagonistic interaction in which one party attempts to thwart the intentions or goals of another
  118. group think
    the tendency for people to be so committed to a cohesive team that they are reluctant to express contrary opinions

    conflick helps prevent this
  119. Competing Style
    reflects the assertiveness to get ones own way

    When a quick decision needs to be made
  120. Avoiding Style
    reflects neither assertiveness or cooperativeness

    when the conflict is over something trivial
  121. Compromising style
    moderate amount if assertiveness and cooperativeness

    when the goals on each side are equally important
  122. accomodating style
    high degree or cooperativeness

    usually when people realize they were wrong
  123. collaborating style
    high degree of assertiveness and cooperativeness

    enables both parties to win, may require substantial bargaining and negotiation
  124. Benefits of team
    • level of effort
    • satisfaction of members
    • expanded job knowledge and skills
    • organizational flexibility
  125. potential costs of teams
    • power realignment
    • free riding
    • coordination costs
    • legal hassles
    • stress from responsibility
  126. Big Five
    • Extroversion - the degree to which a person is outgoing, sociable, assertive and comfortable with interpersonal relationships
    • agreeableness - the degree to which a person is able to get along with others by being goodnatured, likeable, cooperative, forgiving, undertanding, and trusting
    • conscientiousness - the degree to which a person is focused on a few goals, thus behaving in ways that are responsible, dependable, persistent and acheivement oriented
    • emotional stability - the degree to which a person is calm enthusiastic, and self confident, rather than tense depressed, moody or insecure
    • openness to experience - the degree to which a person has a broad range of interests and is imaginative, creative, artistically sensitive, and willing to consider new ideas