Biology Test

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Biology Test
2011-04-12 22:21:32

Test III
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  1. What is a microorganism?
    a tiny organism that usually cannot be seen without the aid of microscope.
  2. 2 types of Cell arrangements
    Rods and Cocci
  3. Rod - cell arrangments:
    diplobacilli, v-shaped, steptobacilli, cords
  4. Cocci- cell arrangement
    diplococci, testrads, steptococci, staphyocicci
  5. What are the three ways to classify Bacteria
    • Cell arrangment
    • Gram stains
    • metabolism
  6. If a Gram pos (+ve) it will be the color _______.
  7. If a Gram Neg (-ve) it will the color ________.
  8. Gram Postive cells walls are __________ and _______ crystal violet.
  9. Gram Negative cell walls are __________ and ________ crystral violet.
  10. Bacteria which cant survive long w/o oxygen
  11. able to survive and metabolize 'food' in absense of oxygen
  12. Type of anarobes where oxygen is poisonous.
    obligate anarobes
  13. Type of anarobe: able to shift through metabolism between aerobic and anaerobic conditions.
    Facultative anaeobic.
  14. Type of bacteria that can suspend growth for centuries, spend a few days dividing then suspend growth again.
  15. 2 Types of reproduction
    Sexual and Asexual
  16. Asexual reproduction of bacteria works through the process of ________ and _________ __________
    mitosis/binary fission
  17. Sexual reproduction of bacteria uses ___________
  18. exchange of genetic materials (plasmid) between individuals
  19. Not true reproduction but means of perserving genetic information from one generation to another
    Endospore formation
  20. Allows for dormancy 1000+ years
    Endospore Formation
  21. Difficult to kill (hught heat/pressure, strong chemicals)
    Endospore Formation
  22. Example of Endospore Formation:
    Botulism and anthrax
  23. Pathogens are created due to the release of ________
  24. Botulism is ___________
  25. Type of Botulism that is common, rod-shaped and found in soil
  26. This bacteria grows best under anaerobic conditions
  27. Foodborne botulism comes from ....
    improperly prepared homemade canned goods
  28. Infant Botulism comes from.......
    eating endospores (dirt)
  29. Types of exotoxin bacteria
    wound botulism, Tetnus, cholera, plague
  30. Type of exotoxin bacteria that enters via wounds (often drug used)
    Wound botulism
  31. Exotoxin bacteria infection via cut or deep injection, can cause lock jaw/ servere muscual spasm
  32. This exotoxin bacteria is not highly communicable, spread by drinking contaimided water
  33. This exotoxin bacteria can cause acute diarrhea to dehydration and shock
  34. The exotoxin bacteria plague happens through ____________
  35. Bacteria is ....... (3 points)
    • Found in all in all enviroments
    • Sucessfull by means of number
    • Single cells or aggregates
  36. Archbacteria specialized for _________ enviroments
  37. Archbacteria is highly _____________ and has a high ___________
    acidic / metal conctration
  38. Structure of bacteria:
    • Prokeryotes , simple
    • has cell membrane and cell walls
    • many with flagelluim
    • produce biofilm
  39. Prokeyotes lacks:
    • nucleus, DNA
    • many organelles
    • Centricles
    • Ribosomes
  40. as surface making it easier for bacteria to become established
  41. Bacteruim normally found in intestinal tract (safe) dange comes when it enters body where it shouldnt be
  42. Two dissimilar organisms live in close association and @ least 1 befits from the presence of the other
    similar relation
  43. What happens when new strain of bacteria is consumed in food/water?
    Montezuma's revenge
  44. Benefits of bacteria in the digestive tract:
    • digestion of cellulose
    • production of vitiam K (clotting)
    • certain species are considered 'good'
  45. Benefits of Bacteria to Humans:
    • used in enviroment cleanups
    • Biocides
    • used to format some food
  46. Kindom Protista belong to domian ________
  47. A diverse group, lacks distinctive combinations of charateristics
  48. All of the protista are __________
  49. Three Groups of Protista :
    • Plant-like
    • animal-like
    • fungus-like
  50. Plant-like protists are __________
    Example of this
    • autotrophs
    • algea
  51. AnimaL-like protist are ___________
    Example of this:
    • Heterotrophs
    • Protozoa (1st animal)
  52. Fungus-like protist are ____________.
    Example of this
    • Saprophytic
    • Slime mold
  53. Plant-like protist chacateristics:
    • algae
    • cellulose, cell wall, chlorophyll
    • some unicelluar/ solitary others colonial
    • multicelluar
  54. Major forms of algea:
    plantonic vs benthic (freshwater or saltwater)
  55. Three forms of Algae:
    Green, Red, and Brown
  56. anster to modern plants, freshwater some sp. are microscopic other are macroscopic
    Green Algea
  57. Red Algea is found in _________
    Warmer oceans
  58. This algea attached to the ocean floors by holdfast structure
    Red Algea
  59. this Aglae is found in splashzone to deth of 100M but most within intertidal zone
    Red Algea
  60. This algea is is smaller 3ft/1m
    Red Algae
  61. This species of algea is ecological and economical important because its contains _____________ and ___________
    ager and carrageenan
  62. Growth for bacteria in microbio (such as yoghurt)
  63. has cosmetical seletin for baby formula chocolate milk
  64. This type of algea is found in colder waters
    Brown Algea
  65. Stuctures of Brown Algea
    Holdfast and stalk/stipe
  66. Type of structure that ancors kelp but cannot conduct food or water
  67. Type of structre that is hollow, gas bladders at bases of blades contains carbon monoxide
  68. Ecological importance of kelp:
    • forms large underwater foresets which provide habitat for a great diversity of organism
    • Nitrogen & potassuim in high conc
    • Food
    • suspension medium
  69. This sea is a Large mat of free floating kelp, its carried to present location by ocean currents, habitat important resources for : fish sp. turtles, eels, jellyfish crabs.
    Sargasso Sea
  70. Charateritics of Planktonic Algea
    • Small floating or weakly swimming organisms
    • Phototropic (uses suns energy)
    • Found w/in 100m of water column where light penatrates.
  71. Diatoms are found in ______________
    Freshwater, marine and soil
  72. Diations Cells walls contain ________
  73. Ground diatoms are used in ________
  74. Dinoflagellates are important for
    food production in oceans
  75. Sarcodina is important
    to consumers of bacteria aglea and small multicellur organism
  76. Many amebas are _________________ (can change shape easily)
  77. Protozoans which use cilia for locomotion
  78. Structurally most complex of protists
  79. These have 15000 cilia covering the body, they are free-living, feed on bacteria and other microorganisms
  80. Spore-like, non-motile throughout much of life cycle, apical complex, only gmetes have flagella
  81. type of complex with a pointed end which helps parasites to peirce tissues/cells of host)
    Apical complex
  82. Example of a Spozoa
  83. These sporoites injected into host via anticoagulent of mosquito (vector ) pentraters liver cells, undergoes schizogony
  84. Merozites infect ____________
    Red blood cells
  85. In RBCs, _____________ and ____________ produced beco me gamete which are sucked up by mosquitos
    macrogametocytes and microgametocytes
  86. Gametes fuse in mesquitos stomache to form _________ --> ____________ -->__________
    zygote/multiple fission/ sporoziles
  87. Species that is resistant to chlorination, needs extra filteration to remover, affects immunally compromised
  88. Species, sexual reproduction occurs in cats, most humans when infected asymtomatic immune system defeats it
  89. This can cause crosses maternal, spontanous abortion, still birth, mental retardation/epilephic seizures
  90. This protist life cycle is similar to fungi produce spores which are dispersed by wind, both multinucleate
    Slime molds
  91. True fungi are nonphotsynthic eukaryotes with cell walls
  92. Most Fungi are multicellur some are single celled such as ___________
  93. disperse throughout enviroment via released of spores
  94. extensive mycilial growth followed by hyphea which grow up
    asexual reproduction
  95. conjection; +ve & -ve stains attached to each other progametangia grow together , touch forming cross walls behind each other
    sexual reproduction
  96. antheria and ascosian
    (male and female)
  97. This fungi infect rye, but the exotoxins are used to induce labor and treat migranes
    Egrot Fungi
  98. Basidiomycetes 'club fungi' are
    True Mushrooms
  99. Mushroom are ________ toadstool are _________
    Ediable/ nonediable
  100. Called club fungi because spores produced at tips of swollen hypea
  101. This type of club fungi the spores produced inside ball-like structure and expelled through pore at top
  102. This type of club fungi is found on rooting wood or manure, biospidispores produced in nest -like cavities , spores w/ sticky thread, raindrop splast out spores
    Bird's nest spores
  103. Deutermoycetes are called the _________ fungi
  104. Deutermoycetes reproduce ______________
    asexual through cribia
  105. Symbiotic relationship between fungus and aglea
  106. This type of lichen embeds into substrate
  107. This type of lichen is leaf-like thalli
  108. This type of lichen looks like miniture upright shrubs
  109. All plants are:
    • anchored to substrate
    • hardy wooy tissues which allow them to stand upright
    • Green presense of pigment chlorophil
  110. the 4 most primitive forms of plants are:
    moss, ferns, genosperms and aneosperms
  111. Bryophyla mosses are
    • small, compact, slow growing
    • sperm motile
    • no true vascular tissues or leaves
  112. to conduct H20
  113. To conduct nutruients
  114. Conduct H20 and anchors plants to substrates
    True Roots
  115. Helps to anchor plants; transport H20 and minarls stroes nutrients over winter
    Vascular Tissue Roots
  116. This plant structure protects plants from dissication and pathogens
  117. this plant structure is about ground structures that support photosynthesis leaves and reproductive structure.
  118. This structures transports nutrients, is a possible site for photosynthesis and stores food
  119. This structure is a main site for photosynthesis, Light provides the energy
  120. Stratagies for water convervation:
    • Waxy cutiles
    • Stoma inside of leaf
    • Stoma only opening cooler times of the day
    • Surface area of the leaves
  121. Have vascular tissue, Sporophyes dominant form: gameosphytes reduced and abitity to produce upright above ground structures
    True Ferns
  122. Seed producing vascular plants are called __________
  123. More than 1 growing season between seeds and reproducing adults
  124. Cone-bearing plants are _________
  125. the type of leaves reduce water loss during dry spells
  126. This tree's extrats used to make Taxol (cancer treatment)
    Pacific Yew Tree
  127. This trees exacts treat ashma and improve memory
    Ginko Trees
  128. The trees that do not all shed at once are called _______________
  129. Pollen tue emerges from male gametpythe and grows down int stigma and style
  130. Endosperm extensive part of seeds, examples are corn and grass
  131. Endospem nutrients absorbed into coleyclons by seeds maturty. Example is Legums
  132. __________ contains 3 distint regions
    what are the 3 regions
    • Fruit
    • exocarp, mesocarp, endocarp
  133. Flowers unit and single pistal is what fruit type
    Simple Flesh fruits
  134. Simple Flesh Fruit types
    Drupe Berry, Prome
  135. Single seed surrounded by hard, stony endocarp (plum, olive, ect.)
  136. Compound overies and usaually have more than 1 seed, (grape tomatoe, pumpkin)
  137. bulk of flesh from floral tube that grows around ovary (apple)
  138. Derived from single flower until several to many pistal; fruit on a single receptancle (strawberry raspberry)
    Aggrate fruit
  139. dervived from several to many flowers upon maturation all develop into a single fruit
    Multiple Fruit
  140. dry fruit split along 1 side or seam (milkweed)
  141. Dry Fruit split on 2 sides (peas and beans)
  142. Dry Fruit split on 2 butseeds on central axis when 1 halves of fruit seperate (dolla plant broccoli)
  143. Most common 2 carpels which can split many ways (snap dragons lillies )
  144. base of seed attached to pericarp , hisk can easily be removed (sunflower seed)
  145. 1 seeded fruit pericap hard and thick (acorn)
  146. pericarp united with seed and cannot be sepreated
  147. Pericap extends out as a wing
  148. Turn fruit beam apart when drying
  149. Seed Dispersal by wind
    • Unassisted
    • Assisted