urinary system review.txt

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  1. Organs involved
    • Kidneys
    • Ureter
    • Urinary Bladder
    • Urethra
  2. Kidney locations
    • At level of T12 - L3 vertebrae (12th rib)
    • Right Kidney slightly lower than Left (due to liver)
  3. Kidney blood flow pathway (start @ aorta)
    aorta -> Renal Artery -> Segmental artery -> Interlobar Artery -> Arcuate artery -> Cortical radiate artery -> Afferent arteriole -> GLOMERULUS (capillaries) -> Efferent arteriole -> Peritubular capillaries -> Cortical Radiate vein -> Arcuate vein -> Interlobar vein -> Renal Vein (no segmental vein) -> Inferior Vena Cava
  4. Nephron structure & role
    • composed of GLOMERULUS & Renal Tubule
    • Responsible for FORMING urine
  5. Glomerulus
    • specialized for filtration
    • sits within Glomerular (Bowman's) capsule (1st part of renal tubule)
    • Afferent arteriole: comes from cortical radiate artery - FEEDS glomerulus
    • Efferent arteriole: receives blood that has passed through glomerulus & goes into the peritubular capillaries & then cortical radiate vein
  6. Glomerular Filtration
    • Passive process
    • H20 & solutes (SMALLER than proteins) go through capillary walls
    • PROTEINs & blood cells usually too large to pass through
    • Filtrate collected in glomerular capsule & leaves via renal tubule
  7. Tubular Reabsorption
    • Some is passive, MOST is active process
    • Most reabsorption occurs in PROXIMAL convoluted tubule
    • peritubular capillaries reabsorb: H20, glucose, aa's, Ions
    • Waste products (not reabsorbed): urea(protein breakdown), uric acid(nuc acid breakdown), creatinine(creatine metabolism in muscles)
  8. Tubular Secretion
    • Important to get rid of substances NOT already in filtrate
    • Some material move from Peritubular capillaries into RENAL Tubules: H+ & K+ ions, Creatinine
    • These materials move towards the ureter
  9. Urine vs. filtrate
    • Filtrate: contains everything blood plasma does (except proteins)
    • Urine: what remains AFTER filtrate has Lost most of its H20, nutrients & necessary ions
    • Urine contains NITROGENOUS wastes and other non-essential substances
  10. Solutes found in urine
    • Na+ & K+ ions
    • Urea, uric acid, creatinine
    • ammonia
    • Bicarbonate ions
  11. Solutes should NOT be found in urine
    • Glucose
    • WBCS (pus)
    • RBCs
    • blood proteins
    • hemoglobin
    • bile
  12. Ureters
    • Slender tubes attaching to kidneys and bladder
    • CONTINUOUS with the renal pelvis
  13. Urinary bladder
    • Smooth muscular sac
    • 3 Openings: 2 FROM ureters, 1 TO urethra
  14. Urethra
    • controls urine release
    • Internal sphincter: involuntary (smooth muscle)
    • External sphincter: voluntary (skeletal muscle)
  15. Urethra gender differences
    • Males: through the prostate & penis (also passageway for sperm), 20cm(8inch)
    • Females: Only carries urine, along vagina wall, 1inch
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urinary system review.txt

anat review
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