Fluid, electrolyte, acid and base review.txt

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Fluid, electrolyte, acid and base review.txt
2011-04-12 18:51:00

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  1. Hormones regulating Renal Na+ & Cl- reabsorption
    • Angiotension II: and aldosterone, work to promote urinary Na+ & Cl- REABSORPTION (& H20 by osmosis) when dehydrated
    • Atrial Natriuretic Peptide (ANP) promotes EXCRETION of Na+ & Cl- (followed by H20 excretion) to DECREASE blood volume
  2. Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
    • aka vasopressin
    • produces concentrated urine due to INCREASED reabsorption of water
  3. Extracellular fluid
    • Most abundant Cation: Na+
    • Most abundant Anion: Cl- (2nd is bicarb)
  4. Intracellular fluid
    • Most abundant Cation: K+ (2nd is Mg+)
    • Most abundant Anion: Proteins & Phosphates (HPO4-2)
  5. Na+/K+ pumps
    • Play role in:
    • 1. keeping K+ HIGH Inside the cell (hence High K+ in ICF)
    • 2. keeping Na+ HIGH outside cell (hence High Na+ in ECF)
  6. Sodium levels in blood
    • controlled by:
    • 1. Aldosterone: increases renal reabsorption
    • 2. ADH: if Na+ too LOW, ADH release stops
    • 3. ANP: Increases renal excretion
  7. Chloride regulation
    ADH: governs the extent of H20 loss in urine
  8. Potassium
    • Most abundant in ICF
    • Key role: estab. resting membrane potential in Neurons & Muscle fibers
    • Helps regulate pH
    • Controlled by: Aldosterone
  9. Bicarbonate
    • 2nd most prevalent ECF Anion
    • Main regulator: Kidneys regulate blood bicarb levels
  10. Calcium
    • Key Roles: Excitability of Nervous & muscle tissue
    • Main Regulator: Parathyroid Hormone
    • 1. osteoclast stimulation
    • 2. also enhances reabsorption from glomerular filtrate
    • 3. increases production of CALCITOL to increase Absorption for GI tract
  11. Phosphate
    Regulator: Calcitrol promotes Absorption of phosphate & Calcium from GI tract
  12. Magnesium
    • 2nd most prevalent ICF Anion
    • Role: cofactor for certain enzymes & Na+/K+ pump
  13. Respiratory Acidosis
    High P-CO2 in systemic arterial blood
  14. Respiratory Alkalosis
    Low P-CO2 in systemic arterial blood