Card Set Information
What are the 2 major parts of a typical vertebrae?
body and arch
What is the intervertebral foramen?
opening b/w adjacent vertebrae allowing the passage of spinal nn
How do the ribs articulate with the thoracic vertebrae?
head articulates with bodies of contiguous while tubercule articulates with the transverse process of same #
What is the name of the space b/w 2 adjacent ribs?
intercostal space; it's palpable
What do the costal cartilages of the last sternal and all asternal ribs form?
What caps the xiphoid process?
How is inspiration accomplished?
increase size of the thorax, thereby decreasing the pressure so that air rushes in
What is the main respiratory muscle?
Name the 2 muscles extending between adjacent ribs
internal and external intercostal mm
What is the opening in to the thorax?
What divides the thorax in to 2 spaces?
Where is the heart located in the thoracic cavity?
2/3 - 5/6 intercostal space in the bottom of the 2/3 of the cavity
Which side of the aorta does the thoracic esophagus normally cross?
Right side of aortic arch
What covers the trachea in the cranial neck?
strap mm....sternohyoideus and sternothyroideus
What is the opening b/w the lobes of the lung where the surgeon's pericardium comes in contact with the thoracic wall?
What do radiologists call the pulmonary trunk?
"main pulmonary artery/segment" = MPA
What is the mediastinum?
space/wall that divides the thoracic cavity in to 2 pleural cavities
List the parts of the pericardium?
fibrous, serous pericardium (parietal and visceral parts)
What is located in the pericardial cavity?
serous fluid, only scant amount
Which side of the heart is pulmonary circulation?
The left side of the heart is what circulation and why?
systemic circulation b/c blood is pumped to heart and entire body
What side of the heart is the right ventricle on? Left?
right ventricle begins on right side and wraps around the left front side of the heart (it's cranial), the left ventricle is caudal
What is the vestigial, fetal connection from the pulmonary trunk to the aorta?
What is the most caudoventral part oft he heart? Right or left side?
What is the adult remnant of the fetal foramen ovale?
What separates the atria?
Name the wall separating the 2 ventricles
Which ventricle has a thinner wall and why?
right ventricle b/c it's only for pulmonary circ. while systemic side has to pump blood to entire body/heart
Name the 3 layers of the heart
endocardium, myocardium, epicardium
What are the valves in the heart?
right and left AV; aortic and pulmpnary valves (semilunar)
What is the function of the semilunar valves?
prevent backflow in to atria during ventricular contraction
What are the 3 parts of the conduction system of the heart?
SA node (=pacemaker), AV node and atrioventricular branches
What is the term for ventricular contraction and relaxation
contraction= ventricular systole
relaxation =ventricular diastole
How do diastole and systole relate to heart sounds?
systole b/w the 1st and 2nd sounds
diastole b/w the 2nd and 1st heart sounds
What causes closure and opening of the AV and semilunar valves?
opening= AV, diastole; semilunar, systole
closing= AV, systole; semilunar, diastole
What does the recoil of the elastic aorta at the end of systole cause?
Blood is pushed to body and back towards the heart, closing the aortic valve and filling coronary arteries
What arteries travel up the neck to supply head and face?
common carotid aa
What artery travels on the floor of the thorax?
internal thoracic a
What vessels and nerves travel in the intercostal spaces caudal to the ribs?
intercostal a, v and n.
What 3 fetal structures bypass lungs and liver?
ductus arteriousus, ductus venosous and formen ovale
Where does the ductus artereriousus shunt most of the blood in the right ventricle from the pulmonary to the systemic circ?
from the pulmonary trunk and aorta (2 aa)
What is the adult remnant of:
oval fossa/fossa ovale
round ligaments of urinary bladder
round ligament of liver
What is the large lymphatic channel draining the caudal animal?
What lymph nodes are near the bifurcaton of the trachea?
trachiobronchial lymph nodes
What is the lymphatic structure in the cranial medastinum?
cranial mediastinal lymph node
What is the large nerve crossing heart, into diaphragm?
What is the branch of the vagus that returns to the neck? Where is it located in the thorax on the left and right sides?
recurrent laryngeal n; around arch of the aorta on the left, around right subclavian artery on right
What supplies cutaneous innervation to the top of the thoracic and abd walls?
dorsal and ventral branches of the spinal nn in thoracic and lumbar regions
What is the parasympathetic innervation to the thorax?
What is the 2 series of connected ganglia lying on either side of the bodies of the thoracolumbar vertebrae and longus colli m?
Which way do the motor fibers travel in to the vagosympathetic trunk?
sympathetic go twd the head, vagus go away from the head
what is a serosa?
thin, continuous membrane lining a closed cavity and covering the organs in it
What are the serous membranes of the pericardial cavity, thorax, abd, spermatic cord called respectively?
What serosa covers the walls of a cavity?
what serosa covers an organ?
What connects parietal and visceral or visceral with visceral serosa?
what is the serosa lining the thoracic cavity?
Are the lungs located in the pleural cavities?
no, just a scant amount of serous fluid there
What is the line of pleural reflection?
point of costal pleura reflects on to diaphragm
What is the plura cupula?
cranial pleural sac extending out through the thoracic inlet
What does R or L marker on diff film view indicate?
r of left lateral= side on cassette
VD/DV- sides of animal
limb in film
How should DV/VD and lateral films be placed on viewing screen?
DV/VD- right side to your left in both
lateral- cranial side to left
How are thoracic films evaluated for rotation?
: costochondral junctions and shoulder joint- same level
VD/DV- sternum and spinal column superimposed
What structure is used to tell an expiratory from an inspiratory in film?
position of diaphragm
What is the cranial limit of the abd?
Can you visualize the sides of the diaphragm?
cranial- yes, as contrasted with air in lungs, caudal no b/c water density is again liver/stomach
What is the junction b/w to the 2 crura?
What mediastinal structures are normally seen in the lateral view?
trachea, aorta, heart in pericardium, caudal vena cava
What mediastinal structures can be seen in VD view?
heart in pericardium, caudal vena cava and left edge of descending aorta
Is the esophagus usually visible on radiograph?
no, only if it has swallowed air or contrast material
What is the thick dark line in lateral radiograph of the cranial mediastinum?
What is the dark oval over the base of the heart in a lateral radiograph?
tracheal bifurcation, "carina"
The trachea normally makes a ? angle to the vertebral column in a lateral view?
Name a dilation of caudal cervical and thoracic esophagus
Which was does a megaesophagus displace the trachea and heart?
What is the line caused by the air in a megaesophagus and air in tracheal contrasting the adj walls of the 2 structures?
What is the name for the VD appearance of a megaesophagus as it passes caudally to diaphragm?
What are the 2 continuations of the trachea in the lungs?
primary bronchi (main stem bronchi)
Which is the most ventral aka dependent of the bronchi?
right middle bronchus
What are the normal longitudinal water densities in the lungs?
pulmonary vessels, not bronchi
What is a lobar bronchus and assoc lobar pulmonary artery and vein?
What is the normal relative size of an artery and vein or a pulmonary triad?
about the same size
Veins are always _____ and ______ (________) to the arteries of pulmonary triads in the lateral and DV views respectively
Ventral and cranial (medial)
In the DV/VD films, what's the position of the lobar arteries to the caudal lungs?
4 & 8 o'clock positions
What conditions will result in visible lung fissures (lobular pattern)
collapsed lungs or pleural fluid/thickenings
How many left lung lobes are there anatomically and radiographically?
anatomically, 2... radiographically, 3
The cranial lung of ______ lobe is seen in front of the cranial lobe of the ______ lung on a lateral view as a separate round air filled structure
What is located in the normal pleural space?
only a little fluid
What is the cranial extent of the pleural cavity?
The pleural cupula is normally extending cranially past the ____ ______
What's located b/w vessels of the lungs?
For what should the parenchyma of the lungs be evaluated?
increased or decreased radio opacity/radiolucency
Why don't you see the heart chambers in survey radiographs?
heart is muscle, chambers are filled with blood so both are water densities
Since you can't see the heart chambers in survey rads, how do you evaluate it?
What are the lateral radiographic locations of the diff compartments of the heart below:
cranial edge (lower part)
what is usually all that can be seen of the cranial vena cava in the lateral projection?
Tell if the structures below are seen and where they're located on DV/VD
caudal vena cava
yes; right side heart to diaphragm
yes, right side of heart
yes, cranial/left side of heart
yes, caudal half
yes, pointing to the left
yes, left lateral edge
On what side of a DV is the caudal vena cava? VD view?
What part of the DV silhouette does the right ventricle make up?
right side from apex around cranial side to left cranial side
The left atrium is over the ____ heart directly above the right ventricle. It's located just caudal to the _______
caudal, tracheal bifurcation
On what side of the heart is the apex located?
How does the descending aorta appear on a DV view?
line to the left, left edge of aorta
What is the normal amt of sternal contact in the heart?
What is found on the VD/DV and lateral views at each time area according to clock face analogy?
2-6 o' clock
What is found on the VD/DV at the 1-2 o'clock faced analogy?
MPA, pulmonary trunk
List some problems needing thoracic rads?
cough, heart problems, abnormal lung sounds, dyspnea
What is a radiograph indication of a diaphragmatic hernia?
entire diaphragm can't be seen
What are the mediastinal lymph nodes visible?
when enlarged ie: lymphosarcoma in cats
What is moving of the mediastinum to right or left?
What is the common term for bowing of the principle bronchi in VD/DV views?
Fluid or air in the pleural space will eliminate the ______ pressure of the space and cause the lungs to collapse away from the chest wall
What is excess fluid in the pleural space?
What is the main radiographic sign of pleural effusion?
separation of lungs/body wall allowing visualization of lung borders and fissure lines
What are the 4 basic opaque long patterns and what characterizes them?
interstitial: fuzzy, alveolar: air bronchograms, peribrochiolar: "donuts and tram lines" and vascular: increased, decreased or normal
What is the #1 cause of an interstitial patter?
expiratory film (normal)
Give 2 signs of a peribronchiolar problem?
- donuts and tram lines
What should be the first thing that comes to mind when enlarged arteries of the lungs are seen?
What is fluid in the lungs?
The increased opacity on rads of pulmonary edema can be either a _____ or _____ pattern or both depending on where fluid is
What is the mechanism of cardiogenic pulmonary edema?
left heart failure backing up in to lungs
Right ventricular enlargement is seen as _____ bulging on the lateral view, this will cause the heart to have more ____ _____
cranial, sternal contact
On VD view, right ventricular enlargement will bulge to the right, how is this shape often referred to?
backwards, reverse "D"
Give a cause of right ventricular enlargement?
pulmonic stenosis, heartworm disease
What are the common radiographic findings of right ventricular enlargement on lateral projection?
increased sternal contact
What is a common finding of right ventricle enlargement on the DV rad?
reversed "D" sign
What clincal condition should you think of if you see tortuous dilated pulmonary arteries?
What are the 3 bumps seen on a canine DV if dog has PDA?
MPA, left auricle and aorta
What is a possible effect on the main stem bronchi in left atrial enlargement in a VD film?
spread out aka "cowboy legs"
LIst 2 most common finding of left atrial enlargement in DV
Auricle projects as 2-3 o'clock position
What is the reflex arch in a panniculous response?
prick trunk, signal sent over thoracic and lumbar spinal nn to spinal cord, up to lateral thoracic n and out to cutaneous trunci m
What is used clinically to evaluate level of thoracic cord damage?
If the spinal cord damage is the level of T10, where will the panniculous response NOT elicit a response?
Level of T12
What is the surgical opening of the thoracic cavity?
How is the vacuum of the pleural cavity regained when closing the thoracic wall?
Maximally inflate lungs during last part of closure
Where is the intercostal space incised to open thorax and why?
In center to avoid the vessels caudal to the ribs
What vessels are of concern in midsternal thoracotomies?
Internal thoracic a. and v.
What is the term for segmental fractures of a # of sequential ribs causing the chest wall to move in during inspiration?
What is aspiration pneumonia?
swallowing foreign material in to lungs and subsequent pneumonia
Which lobe is the most common site for aspiration pneumonia? and the 2nd?
right middle b/c its' the most dependent, then cranial right lung lobe
To which lung lobe will a light, inhaled foreign body which moves by air flow and not gravity, tend to go?
straight, so to right caudal
What is chylothorax?
lymph in pleural cavity usually from a ruptured lymphatic vessel ie: thoracic duct
What re the 3 common locations of clinical blockage of the esophagus in the thorax?
thoracic inlet, base of heart and esophageal hiatus of diaphragm (start of esophagus)
Name a dilation fo the caudal cervical and thoracic esophagus
What is air in the mediastinum?
What is the surgeon's pericardium?
sac opened to access epicardial covered heart
What is compression of the heart due to collection of blood or fluid in the pericardial sac?
What is done with the pericardium during sx?
left unsutured/loosely approximated to avoid cardiac tamponade
Where does blood back up int o when the right heart is damaged, what are the clinical signs?
pulmonic so blood backs up in to abdomen and there is a jugular pulse
What is ascite? What causes it?
Fluid in abd, caused by right heart failure
Where does blood back up in left heart failure?
blood backs up in to the lungs
What are cardiomyopathies?
progressive cardiac diseases
What is inflammation of the heart muscle?
What parasite may residence in the right ventricle of the dog's heart?
heartworms aka dirofilariasis, and adult roundworms aka nematodes
What is normal blood pressure in a dog?
What structures constrict the esophagus in a persistent right aortic arch?
aorta, ligamentum arteriosum, pulmonary trunk and base of heart
Right instead of left 4th aortic arch becomes aorta resulting in entrapment of esophagus
What is a clinical sign of a persistent right aortic arch?
regurgitates undigested food when weaned to solid food, large particles can't get past constriction
The constriction due to persistent right aortic arch causes food to be stopped and the esophagus to balloon cranial to the _____ ______
base of heart
How is PRAA treated?
ligamentum arteriosum is surgically isolated, ligaged 2x and cut b/w 2 ligatures
What is the difference b/w a congenital and a hereditary defect?
congenital = present at birth, can be due to hereditary or environmental causes
Hereditary= passed on to offspring, may or may not be present at birth
What is a PDA?
Patent ductus arteriosus, failure of fetal ductus arteriosus to close
What causes a washing machine murmur and why?
caused by PDA, continuous, thus systolic and diastolic
How is a PDA treated?
surgically tie off ends and cut b/w them if caught early
LIst the developmental anomalies making up tetralogy of fallot
pulmonic stenosis, overriding aorta, VSD, hypertrophy of right ventricle
What does cyanosis mean?
bluish discoloration of tissue due to poor oxygenation
What are the 3 bumps seen on a DV views of dog with PDA?
MPA, left auricle, and aorta
OF what is a patent ductus venosus an example?
What cause valvular murmurs?
insufficiency or stenosis
What causes a stystolic murmur?
semilunar stenosis or insufficiency
What causes a diastolic murmur?
leaky semilunar valve aka insuffcient AV
What is the clinical significance of the line of pleural reflection?
demarcates the pleural from the peritoneal cavity
What is pleurocentesis/thoracocentesis?
sx puncture of chest wall for fluid drainage
Where is thoracocentesis done?
middle of the 7-8 intercostal space just dorsal to costochondral junction
How can the pleural cupular be clinically important?
can open the pleural cavity with an incision near the thoracic inlet
What is pneumothorax or pyothorax usually bilateral in carnivores?
mediastinum is fenestrated
What is hyaline membrane disease?
premature parturition before the lung matures w/ insufficient surfactant produced
What is air/gas/pus/chyle in the pleural space?
pneumthorax, pyothorax, chylothorax
In what could a tear in the thoracic part of the trachea result?
How can infections of the neck migrate to the thorax?
via deep fascis to endothoracic fascia
What is the normal respiratory rate in dogs? cats?
dogs- 20 breaths/min
cats- 25 breaths/min
How far cranially does the dome of the diaphragm extend?
6th intercostal space just behind olecranon /heart
Where is the heart located in relationship to the intercostal spaces and the arm mm?
b/w 2/3-5/6 intercostal space, mostly under arm mm
What is a memory aide for the heart valv's point of max intensity?
Pam 345, right AV, low 5th right
What vessels should be considered when opening the thorax?
Internal thoracic aa on the thoracic floor of thee thorax, don't cut near sternum. Intercostal vessels and nn, caudal to rib so cut in the cent of the intercostal spaces
Describe cavity to enter when inserting a needle to either side of the line of pleural reflection?
craniodorsal = thorax 1st, caudoventral= abd
Where is the basal border of the lung?
approx 1-2 inches craniodorsal to and parallel to the line of pleural reflection
What are the boundaries of the auscultation triangle?
: caudal border of triceps brachii m
: epaxial mm
: curved line from olecranon to next to the last dorsal intercostal space
In relationship to what structure is a lung biopsy performed?
craniodorsally to the basal border of the lung
How is a cardiocentesis performed?
In to 5th ICS in to palpated heartbeat
What is the location for a thoracocentesis?
7-8th ICS at intercostal space level of right olecranon