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What is Hypokinetic disorder?
Patient wants to perform an action but can't
What are two forms of Hypkinetic disorder?
- 1) Akinesia: no movement
- 2) Bradykinesia: movements are very slow
What pathways are affected by Hypokinetic disorders?
Both direct and indirect
What is Hyperkinetic disorder?
Patient performs action without wanting to perform the action
What pathway is affected by hyperkinetic disorder?
Indirect (can't inhibit)
What are three forms of Hyperkinetic disorder?
- 1) ballism: rapid, flinging movements
- 2) Athetosis: slow movements of limbs
- 3) Chorea: rapid, flailing movements of limbs (huntingtons disease)
What are the "kinesia" signs of Parkinson's disease?
Akinesia, bradykinesia, resting tremors
What specifically happens with the Basal Nuclei that causes parkinson's?
- Pars Compacta of Substantia Nigra not producing Dopamine
- **movements cannot be activated or enhanced
What is a "kinesia" sign of Huntingtons?
What specifically happens with the Basal Nuclei that causes Huntington's?
- Indirect pathway inhibited at level of striatopallidal axons.
- Medium spiny neurons degenerate
What is a sign of Tardive dyskinesia?
Smacking of lips, chewing movements
What specifically happens with the Basal Nuclei that causes Tardive dyskinesia?
Hypersensitivity to Dopamine from Substantia Nigra
What is a sign of hemiballismus?
Ballism (rapid, flinging movements)
What specifically happens with the Basal Nuclei that causes Hemiballismus?
Subthalamic nucleus damage = indirect pathway inhibited = direct pathway always causing activity