Wildlife Management - Wind Turbines
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Which two flyways are of a concern to waterfowl biologists concerning industrial wind turbines?
- Atlantic Flyway
- Mississippi Flyway
When are the Great Lakes most heavily populated by waterfowl? Approximately how many birds are there at this time?
- Fall Migration
- 12.8 million
When are the Great Lakes least populated by waterfowl? Approximately how many birds are present during this time?
How many waterfowl are in the Great Lakes during the breeding season?
1.3 million pairs
How many waterfowl are in the Great Lakes during spring migration?
How many species of waterfowl use the LGL (Lower Great Lakes)?
Which groups of waterfowl use the LGL?
- Dabbling Ducks
- Diving Ducks
- Sea Ducks
Which species of geese use the LGL?
Which species of swan use the LGL?
- Tundra Swan
- Mute Swan
- Trumpeter Swan
Which species of dabbling duck use the LGL?
- Wood duck
- Grean-winged Teal
- American Black Duck
- Nothern Pintail
- Blue-winged Teal
- Northern Shoveler
- American Wigeon
Which species of diving duck use the LGL?
- Ring-necked Duck
- Lesser Scaup
- Greater Scaup
- Ruddy Duck
Which species of sea duck use the LGL?
- Long-tailed Duck
- Black Scoter
- Surf Scoter
- White-winged Scoter
- Common Goldeneye
- Hooded Merganser
- Red-breasted Merganser
- Common Merganser
Which of the Greak Lakes is the shallowest?
Lake St. Clair
Why is waterfowl use and wind turbine placement high in overlapping areas?
Because high consistent winds are used by both.
List the Danish Recommendations
- do not place windfarms within 1000 m of waterfowl roosting sites
- do not place windfarms on flight corridors between roosting and feeding areas
- do not place windfarms in agricultural fields traditionally used by large flocks of staging or wintering waterfowl
What is the piece of legislation enacted that allowed industrial wind turbine farm companies placement of wind turbines with fewer restrictions?
The Green Energy Act
What are the current MNR guidelines for wind turbine farms?
- > 120 m setback from significant wildlife habitat requires no Natural Heritage Assessment
- < 120 m setback means a Natural Heritage Assessment must be conducted
- IWT companies hire their own consultants
- bird mortality non-significant until 18 birds/turbine/year are killed in a wind turbine farm, 7.2 times the NA avg
- raptor mortality non-significant until 0.1 raptors/turbine/year are killed across a wind turbine project (but it adds up)
- the bird habitat assessment process doe snot require assessment of displacement
- do not take into consideration additive effect of offshore and onshore wind turbine farms
How many km offshore should a IWT farm be located?
at least 5km, preferably 10km
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