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What did Leeuwenhoek do?
Developed the first microscope
What did Redi do?
First to dispute the theory of spontaneous generation
What did Spallanzani do?
Discovered if you heat air, nothing will grow.
What did Jenner do?
First person to develop the small pox vaccine
What did Semmelweis do?
Said that washing hands led to less infections
What did Lister do?
Made Listerine. Phenol sterilizes hands and instruments better
What did Pastuer do?
- Developed Rabies Vaccine
- Heat sterilizes instruments too
What is taxonomy?
Science of naming living organisms
What are the 2 functions of Pili on bacteria?
- To grab onto what it is attacking
- To grab and share genetic information with other bacteria
What are the 3 types of surface coating of bacteria?
- Glycocalyx- thin (sugar)
- Slime layer- Thicker (protein)
- Capsule- Thickest (glyco-protein)
What 2 sections of taxonomy will we be dealing with in bacteria?
Genus and Species
What does a cell envelope do?
- Protects the cell
- Determines if it is gram positive or negative
What is an antigen?
A protein that identifies a cell
What 2 things is bacteria primarily made of?
Cytoplasm and ribosomes
What are the 3 classifications of bacterial shape?
- Cocci- Round
- Spirillium- Spiral
- Bacillus- Oval
How do bacterial grow?
- Chains- Strepto
- Clumps- Staphylo
- Individually- no name
Where is ATP made in eukaryotes?
How do Bacteria make ATP?
Glucose (Krebs Cycle)
How many ATP are made from anaerobic respiration?
How many ATP are made from aerobic respiration?
- 38 overall (with anaerobic)
What are Koch's postulates?
- The microorganism:
- must be found in abundance in all suffering from disease
- Must be isolated from a diseased organism and grown in a pure culture
- Should cause disease when introduced to healthy organism
- Must be re-isolated from the host and be identical to first infection
What is Penicillin's mechanism of action? Is is bactericidal or bacteriastatic?
- Disrupts cell wall
- Metabolism leading to cell lysis
What is Macrolides mechanism of action? Is is bactericidal or bacteriastatic?
- Disrupts ribosome function (STOPS protein synthesis)
- BOTH CIDAL AND STATIC
What is Tetracyclines mechanism of action? Is it bactericidal or bacteriastatic?
- Disrupts portion of ribosome (INHIBITS protein synthesis)
What is Quinolones mechanism of action? Is it bactericidal or bacterialistic?
- Stops nucleic acid metabolism
What is Sulfonamides mechanism of action? Is it bactericidal or bacteriastatic?
- Blocks certain metabolic pathways
What is the difference between Bactericidal and bacterialstatic?
- CIDAL- Kills bacteria
- STATIC- Stops growth
What does par focal mean?
Feature on microscope that allow you to switch from one objective to the next without having to refocus
What are the 3 types of microscopes?
- Disecting (weakest)
- Compound Light (More than 1 magnifier, Up to ~1000x)
- Electron (up to 2,000,000x)