Different modes of structuring treatment sessions....
Drill, drill play, sturctured play and play
stimulus-response mode Ex: Give me a good /g/ sound...
Define Drill Play
Using a motivator with drill
Define Structured Play
Part of play activities; optional feedback about incorrect responses Ex: /b/ phoneme, might bring blocks, bubbles, babies...
Stimulus and response activities that occur as a part of play activies. (natural) -Kids play with whatever and we model incorrect utterances
What variables should be considered when structuring treament sessions..
a) modify treatment to fit client
2) stage of treatment
b) begin with highly struc first
Treatment trial in which clinician presents antecedent stimuli; client is instructed to produce the sound or clinician immediately models the correct response. Then clicinician gives appropriate consequence and records accuracy. *some sounds not able to produce in this way...
Sound in Isolation level
This is the simplest response level for sounds that cannot be produced in isolation... can use vowel diagram to present target sound.
Sound in Syllable level
Treatment trial that uses carrier phrases..
Sound in word, phrase and sentence levels
In this trial the clinician presents a picture or object in front of the client then demonstrates the action or event that reps the sound in a word, asks a relevent predeterm'd question or immediatly models the correct response. Clinician then waits for client to respond following with a consequence then records response.
Sound in word, phrase and sentence levels
In this trial clinician asks open-ended questions to evoke free flow of speech. Clinician will continue to provide feedback appropriate to response, client needs to be able to self-monitor.
Sound in conversation
To find out if the treatment has resulted in generalized production, the clinician conducts a...
Data collection is necessary because and includes...
It is necessary to show accountability and includes positive changes in childs skills under treatment as well as the overall progress since the inception of treatment.
What are the different types of generalizations?
1) Generalization to untrained stimulus items
2) Generalization across word positions
3) Generalization across response topographies
4) Generalization within sound classes
5) Generalization across sound class
6) Generalization across situations
Type of generalization in which a child moves a response to a pic to response to an object.. Ex: Child learns soup in Tx and then at home says the word soup in repsonse to a bowl of soup.
Generalization to untrained stimulus items
Type of generalization in which child learns a phoneme in one position and uses it in untreated positions of a word.
Generalization across word positions
Type of generalization in which child produces /p/ in word and sentences but was only taught its production in single words.
Generalization across repsonse topographies
What is the ultimate goal of the clinician which refers to skills sustained across time?
In a nut shell selection and manipulation of antecedent stimuli is...
What we do to elicit the response
When selecting and manipulating the antecedent stimuli you need to...
1) Use stimuli that is from the natural environment
2) Use common verbal antecedents
3) Vary audience
4) Vary in physical settings
Define stimlui from natural environments..
Talking about things of clients interest or things that occur in the clients home environment... baseball, crochet,
Define common verbal antecedents..
These are words or phrases used to evoke the producion of target sounds..
This is teaching to expand the use or target. Train many words with target behavior to promote generalization.
Manipulation of treatment contingencies refers to...
The clinician reevaluating the programmed contingencies for effectiveness.
Manipulating treatment contingencies includes..
1) Moving away from continuous and intermittment reinforcement
2) Use conditioned/ natural reinforcement
3) delaying reinforcement
4) training parents and caregivers
6) Teaching self correction/ monitoring
7) Teaching contingency priming
What is the importance of moving away from intermittent and continuous reinforcement?
Because a client is not going to get reinforcement for each correct production in everyday life.
Verpraise, attention, and eye contact are all types of (in reference to maintenance)
When a clinician is using the 1-3-8 schedule he/she is...
When training parents and/or caregivers it is important that they give ______ not ______.
The ability of a person to catch their own incorrect production and correct it is know as...
self correct or self monitor
What is contingency priming?
This is when a client seeks reinforcement from others for their own desirable response.
ex. Mom did you hear my good /s/ sounds???
Four ways dismissal may occur are...
1) time restraint (third party)
2)Lack of interest (may need break)
4)Ultimate goal... dismissal upon mastery
If a patient is dismissed upon mastery what needs to follow?
Follow ups or reassesments. (to check maintenance)
What is done to asses phonological/phonemic awareness?
Sound and syllable blending
Sound and syllable identification
Treatment for phonological awareness?
1)Articulation treatment can be changed to adapt to treatment for phonological awareness.
2) Activities that promote phono awareness
3) Important to from simple to complex
Motor skill disorder, client will have difficulty executing volotional movements in the absence of muscular weakness.
Etiologies of apraxia.
1) Neurological damage to the dominate speech hemi (brocca's in dom hemi).
2) Degenerative disorders
3) Tumors in left hemi
4) Seizure disorders
5) Traumatic injury
6) Undetermined (4% of cases)
What are the three types of apraxia?
Oral, Limb, and verbal/speech apraxia
_____ is the most common type of apraxia and ____ is the least common type of apraxia.
______ apraxia is difficulty in the volotional movements required for production of phonemes and words.
_____ apraxia may give a patient difficulty with non speech volitional movements (licking an ice cream cone)
What is the most common hemisphere damaged in apraxia?
What are the characteristics of apraxia?
1) awareness of problems causing frustration
2) imparied volotional sequencing movements
3) highly variable errors (hallmark of apraxia)
4) slower rate of speech (compensatory to produce correct speech)
What are the articulation errors of apraxia?
1) Subs and ommisions, some distortions
2) Better automatic speech
3) Erros of afficates and fricatives
4) Regressive and anticpatory substitutions
5) Consonant cluster error more than singleton
6) Metathatic errors (ask-aks)
7) Delayed initition
8) Difficulty with imitation
9) Searchin, trial and error or groping
10) Unsuccessful self correction leads to false start and searching
-monotonous voice quality and syllalble stress
-Repitions because of false starts
-Reduced rate of speech
-Multiple silent pauses
-Increased duration of syllables
-Difficulty in increasing speech or changing pitch when instructed
-may sound like foreign accent
are all prosodic problems of ______.
What are the different names of childhood apraxia of speech?
CAS-Childhood Apraxia of Speech
DAS-Developmental Apraxia of Speech
DVA-Developmental Verbal Apraxia
and Suspected Developmental Apraxia of Speech
Childhood Apraxia of Speech is a _____ descriptive and ____ known etiolgy.
Speech characteristics of CAS
Moderate to severe intelligibility problems
inconsitent sound errors
unusual error patters/no pattern
non english sound production
prosodic problems (dysprosody and aprosody)
These are ______ and _____ problems of CAS.
1)diffi sounds in correct sequence
2)diffi sequencing sounds even though they are in the child's phonetic repertoire
3)diffi with diadochokinetic
4)increase in number of sequencing errors as incr in complexity or lenght of the utterance
5) metathetic errors
Sound and syllable sequencing
Silent posturing errors and groping errors are most notable in ________ tasks.